Somaliland waxay xorowdey 26 June 1960 kii 1 July ayey somaliyina Xorowedey isla 1 July 1960 kii ayey labadii dal ee ay kala haysteen boqortooyada Engiriiska iyo Gumeystihiii Talyanigu isku biireyn noqdeena laba dal oo mid ah.
Muran kama joogo in ay Somaliya iyo Somaliland ahaayeen laba dal oo kala duwan mudo kala duwana xoriyadooda qaatey taas waxaa markhaati kugu filan:
- 26 Jun 2020 Somaliland waxaa looga dabaaldegey Sanadguradii 60 maad ee madaxbanaanidii Somaliland
- 26 Jun 2020 Somaliya( Muqdisho) waxaa laga xusey 60 guradii ka soo waregtey qaadashadii xoriyada ee Somaliland,taasi waxay cadeynaysaa in Somaliyi aaney dafirsaneyn in Somaliland somaliya oo aan xor ahayn ay xor ahayd oo wadan dad somaliyeed oo dawladnimo qaata ay ugu horeyseysey Somaliland.
- Somaliya Waxay Xorowdey 1 July 1960 balse Somaliland may xorobin taakhiidaas balse waxaa jirtey in mudo ka dib ay Somaliya iyo Somaliland midowbeen taas oo taariikhda qoran lagu muujiyey 1961 faafinta rasmiga ah lagu soo saarey ee dawladii Somaliya in kasta oo lagu xusay in 1 July 1960 laga soo bilaabayo midowga arintaas oo dhica sharciga khalad ku ah.
Caalamka ugu horeyaan Somaliland iyo Somaliya laba dal oo midowbey ugumana dambeyneyso,oo waxaa jira dalal badan oo midowbay oo ilaa hada mid ah iyo kuwo kukala baxay midowgii oo kala noqdey.
Balse arinta xiisaha lahi waxay tahay side laba dal oo ku midoobey doonistooda markii uu mid ka mid ahi ka baxay midowgii sababta bulshada caalamku ugu qasbayso in aanu ka bixin midowgii sidii oo ay tahay dal kala go’aya miyaaney caalamku iska idha tireynin xaqiiqada iyo farqiga u dhaxeeya laba dal oo isku tagey iyo dal kala qaysamaya!!!.
Somaliland xorimadeeda waxay la soo noqotey 18 May 1991 balse maxaa sababey uney Somaliland horiyadeeda la soo noqoto?
Waxaynu odhan karnaa waxa sababey arimahan:
- Burburkii dawladii Somaliya
- Tacadiyadii iyo Xasuuqii loogeystey dadka reer Somaliland
- Siyaasiinta Konfurta Somaliya oo aan ahmiyad ba la lahayn wada jirka iyo Midnimada labadii dal
- Daganaasha la’aanta iyo fashilaada dawladnimo ee somaliya
Maxaa sii Fogeeyey xaalada siyaasadeed ee Somaliya iyo Somaliland?
Waxaa sii kala fogeeyey:
- Siyaasiinta Somaliya oo aan ahmiyadba la lahayn Somaliland una fikiraya fikir ah in Somaliland tahay magaalo ka mida magaalooyinka somaliya oo aan wax tixgelina laga siin arimaha somaliya iyo masiirkooda
- Somaliland oo ogaatey in aan midow dambe dan u ahayn labada dhinacba.
- Somaliya oo dhisatey nidaam federal ah oo aaney Somaliland talo,tusaale iyo ka qaybgalba ku lahayn,taas oo sharciyan Somaliland wax sameyn ah ku lahayn Karin arin aaney ka qaybgelin qaybna ka ahayn.
- Dawladaha kala dambeyey ee Somaliyada federalka ah oo aan daacad ka ahayn xalinta arimaha Somaliland iyo somaliya balse aminsan uun in ay Somaliland cadaadis iyo godoomin dhinaca walba ah lagu soo xerinkaro iyaga oo u haysta in ay taasi ugu surtogeleyso aqoonsigii caalamka ayaanu haysanaa balse aad moodo in aaney xitaa fahanba ka haysan qaabka uu u shaqeeyo xidhiidhka caalamiga iyo doorka ahmiyada Somaliland ku lee dahay caalamka.
- Somaliland oo ogaatey in aaney Somaliya xibaato uun ku hayso dadka reer Somaliland wax qabasashadoodana ka xun yihiin oo ay jecel yihiin uun in ay Somaliland ahaato mid aan horusocon oo ka liidata had iyo jeer.
- Dadkii geystey xasuuqii baahsanaa ee dadka reer Somaliland oo siyaasiinta Somaliya qaarkood u arkaan geesiyayaal qaran diyaarna u ahayn in lala xisaabtamo.
Arimahani iyo kuwo kale oo la mid ahi waa kuwo qayb ka ah in Somaliland iyadu ku foofto danaheeda taas oo ka badbaadisay dhibaatooyinka dawlad la’aanta eek a jirta somaliya.
Source BBC news from 1 Feb.2019
Taiwan is an island that has for all practical purposes been independent since 1950, but which China regards as a rebel region that must be reunited with the mainland – by force if necessary.
China has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan since the end of the Chinese civil war in 1949, when the defeated Nationalist government fled to the island as the Communists, under Mao Zedong, swept to power.
China insists that nations cannot have official relations with both China and Taiwan, with the result that Taiwan has formal diplomatic ties with only a few countries. The US is Taiwan’s most important friend and protector.
Despite its diplomatic isolation, Taiwan has become one of Asia’s major economic players, and one of the world’s top producers of computer technology.
Republic of China (ROC)
- Population 23,3 million
- Area 36,188 sq km (13,972 sq miles)
- Major languages Mandarin Chinese (official), Min Nan Chinese (Taiwanese), Hakka
- Major religions Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity
- Life expectancy 76,2 years (men), 82,7 years (women)
- Currency New Taiwan dollar
UN, World BankGetty Images
President: Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen became Taiwan’s first female president when elected in January 2016.
With 56% of the vote, she led her traditionally pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to their biggest ever victory in parliamentary elections.
Ms Tsai’s political message has always revolved around the importance of Taiwanese identity, and she has pledged that democracy will be at the heart of the island’s future relations with China.
By pursuing Taiwanese sovereignty, Ms Tsai runs the risk of antagonising China, reversing eight years of warmer ties under President Ma Ying-jeou of the Beijing-friendly Kuomintang party.
In the 1990s, Ms Tsai negotiated Taiwan’s accession to the World Trade Organization. She joined the DPP in 2004 after working as a non-partisan chairwoman of Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council. Four years later she became the youngest person and first woman to lead the party. She lost the presidential election to Ma Ying-jeou in 2012.
A former law professor, she hails from the coastal village of Pingtung in southern Taiwan. Her mixed ethnicity – a Hakka father and Taiwanese mother – has been cited as one of the traits that helped her connect with voters.
The media environment in Taiwan is among the freest in Asia, and extremely competitive.
Media freedom organisations say Beijing exerts pressure on Taiwanese media owners.
There are hundreds of newspapers, all privately-owned and reflecting a wide range of views.
Nearly 93% of Taiwanese are online.
Some key dates in Taiwan’s history:
1683 – Island comes under administration of China’s Qing dynasty.
1895 – China – defeated in the first Sino-Japanese war – cedes Taiwan to Japan.
1945 – Taiwan reverts to Chinese control after Japanese defeat in Second World War.
1947 – Nationalist troops crush island-wide rioting by Taiwanese disgruntled with official corruption, killing unknown thousands. The event is now known as the 228 Incident.
1949 – Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek loses civil war to Mao Zedong’s Communist forces and flees to Taiwan. He rules the island with an iron fist until his death in 1975.
1950s-1960s – Rapid industrial development.
1971 – UN recognises Communist China as sole government of whole country. People’s Republic takes over China’s UN Security Council seat.
1979 – Washington switches diplomatic recognition to Beijing from Taipei. US Congress passes the Taiwan Relations Act promising to help the island defend itself.
1987 – Taiwan lifts almost four decades of martial law and eases ban on travel to China.
2000 – Voters put Democratic Progressive Party in power for first time, ending more than five decades of Nationalist rule.
Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland 29 sannadood waxay dalalka reer Galbeedka, dawladaha Carabta iyo waddamada jaarka ka quuddaraynaysay in ay ka hesho aqoonsi buuxa ama xattaa mid dadban (de facto state). Madaxda iyo siyaasiyiinta Somaliland iskumay taxluujin jirin in ay xidhiidho la sameeyaan Beesha Caalamka inteeda kale oo laga heli kari lahaa dalal badan oo u diyaar ah xidhiidhka iyo saaxiibtinimada JSL.
Waxaynu qaadanay nidaamka dawladnimo iyo mabaadiida reer Galbeedka, waxaynu la ilaalinaa danaha ay ka leeyihiin gobolka, Somaliland sax iyo qalad ba waxay ku taageerta hadba waxay rabaan iyo hadba sida ay ula dhaqmayaan Dunida inteeda kale; Somaliland waxay dhankeeda isku xilqaantay in ay ka qayb qaadato la dagaallanka argagixisada caalamiga ah iyo budhcad badeedda.
Somaliland waxay xushmaysaa kuna dhaqantaa dhammaan xeerarka caalamiga ah hase ahaatee waxba kamay dheefin waxna kumay kasban.
Somaliland waxay u dhego nugushahay codsiyada iyo rabitaanka dalalka Carabta siiba kuwa khaliijka, dalalka ku loollamaya awoodda iyo amar ku taaglaynta Bariga Dhexe, xukuumadda Somaliland waxay la safatay isbahaysiga Sucuudiga, dawladda Imaaraadka gaar ahaan waxa loo hibeeyay dekedda Berbera, waxa loo ogolaaday Saldhig Militari iyagu se waxay ka gaabsadeen taageeridda qaddiyadda madaxbanaanida Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland.
Siyaasadda Arrimaha Dibadda waxa saldhig u ah in colaadihii iyo jaar xumadii Jamhuuriyaddii Soomaaliya lagu bedelo nabad iyo in horumarka la iska kaashado oo laga hadho sheegashadii Jamhuuriyadda Jabuuti iyo qaybo ka mid ah Kenya & Itoobiya sida ku cad Distoorka Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland si dalalka Geesku uga soo kabtaan dib u dhicii iyo kala qoqobnaantii waana aragti iyo hal abuur Somaliland curisay hase ahaatee maanta waxa sheeganaya ra’isal wasaaraha Itoobiya Dr Abiy Ahmed oo aragti cusub uga dhigaya Beesha Caalamka.
Somaliland waxay dalalka jaarka ah si hagar la’aan ah uga caawisa in laga hor tago falalka argagixisada ee laga fulin lahaa dhulkooda, hase ahaatee may garwaaqsan qiimaha jiritaanka iyo xasilloonida JSL ugu fadhido amniga dalalkooda, balse qaarkood waxay gacan saar la leeyihiin cadowga Somaliland.
Kama soo horjeedo in xidhiidh wanaagsan lala yeesho dalalka kor ku xusan haddiise ay albaabada ka xidheen Somaliland waxay xaq u leedahay in ay garaacdo albaabo kale sida Ruushka, Hindiya, Iiraan, Israa’iil, Waqooyiga Kuuriya iyo qaar kale oo badan.
Waxa hubaal ah in qaarkood soo dhawayn doonaan xidhiidhka JSL. Si kastaba ha ahaateen madaxweynaha JSL iyo xukumaddiisa waxaan ku bogaadinaya ugu dambeyn in ay fahmeen saaxiibtinimada dhalanteedka ah ee dawladaha reer Galbeedka, Carabta iyo kuwa gobolka, waxaan hambalyaynaya majaraha cusub ee siyaasadda arrimaha dibadda iyo baadi goobka saaxiibo la isku hallayn karo.
Somaliland jawaabtii u horaysay waxay ka heshay dalkaTAIWAN; lama aqoonsana waa se dal yar oo hodan ah, waa dalka 7-aad ee ugu dhaqaalaha badan qaaradda Eeshiya, waana dalka 20-aad Dunida oo dhan, sidaas daraadeed xaggooda aqoonsi la’aanta Beesha Caalamku muhiim uma aha.
Akhrista bal u fiirso qodobada heshiiska labada dal:Iskaashiga siyaasadda, dhaqaalaha, ganacsiga, caafimaadka, dhismaha kaabeyaasha iyo wixii la mid ah.
Haddaba sida labada xukuumadood ka go’an haddii heshiiskani hirgalo Somaliland-na uga faa’iidaysato sida ugu haboon waxaan u malaynaya Somaliland in ay noqon karto waddanka ugu hodansan Geeska Afrika oo lagu soo hiran doono.
La soco qaybta dambe………
Waxa Qoray Cabdiraxmaan Cadami
The new ‘Magnitsky’-style sanctions regime will target those who have been involved in some of the gravest human rights violations and abuses around the world.Published 6 July 2020From:Foreign & Commonwealth Office and The Rt Hon Dominic Raab MP
Forty-nine individuals and organisations involved in some of the most notorious human rights violations and abuses in recent years have been designated for sanctions under a powerful new regime established today by the UK, the Foreign Secretary has announced.
The individuals and organisations are the first wave of designations under the new regime, with further sanctions expected in the coming months.
From today, the ground-breaking global regime means the UK has new powers to stop those involved in serious human rights abuses and violations from entering the country, channelling money through UK banks, or profiting from our economy.
The measures will target individuals and organisations, rather than nations.
It is the first time that the UK has sanctioned people or entities for human rights violations and abuses under a UK-only regime, and will allow the UK to work independently with allies such as the US, Canada, Australia and the European Union.
The UK’s first wave of sanctions under this new regime targeted:
- 25 Russian nationals involved in the mistreatment and death of auditor Sergei Magnitsky, who uncovered widespread Russian corruption by a group of Russian tax and police officials
- 20 Saudi nationals involved in the death of journalist Jamal Khashoggi
- 2 high-ranking Myanmar military generals involved in the systematic and brutal violence against the Rohingya people and other ethnic minorities
- 2 organisations involved in the forced labour, torture and murder that takes place in North Korea’s gulags
Underlining the UK’s position as a global force for good, this new regime showcases our commitment to the rules-based international system and to standing up for victims of human rights violations and abuses around the world.
Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab, said:
Today we’re designating 49 people and organisations for responsibility in some the worst human rights abuses in recent memory.
This is a demonstration of Global Britain’s commitment to acting as a force for good in the world.
Following his announcement in Parliament, the Foreign Secretary will meet with Sergei Magnitsky’s widow and son Natalia and Nikita, along with his friend and colleague Bill Browder, at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
The regime will allow the UK to target individuals and organisations around the world unlike conventional geographic sanctions regime, which only target a country.
It could also include those who commit unlawful killings perpetrated against journalists and media workers, or violations and abuses motivated on the grounds of religion or belief.
A special unit will consider the use of future sanctions, with teams across the department monitoring human rights issues.
They will ensure targets under the landmark regime will have to meet stringent legal tests before the UK decides to designate, ensuring the sanctions are robust and powerful.
The suite of measures can also apply to those who facilitate, incite, promote, or support these violations/abuses, as well as those who financially profit from human rights violations and abuses.
The UK will continue to utilise a range of tools to tackle serious human rights violations and abuses around the world, including the UN and EU multilateral sanctions regimes.
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Sanadkii 1960 kii wuxuu qaarada Afrika u ahaa xilgii baraaruga ee ay gumeystayaashii gumeysan jirey qaaradu bixinayeen madaxbanaanida qaarada waana sansaankii sanadadii xoriyada ee qaarada Afrika taas oo sanadadii 60 meeyadii bilowgiisii ilaa badhtamahiisii dalal badan oo Afrikan ahi xoriyadoodii qaateen.
Somaliya iyo Somaliland na waxay qaab ka ahaayeen dalalkaa xoroobey sanadkii 1960.
Taariikhda dib marka loo raaco Somaliya iyo Somaliland waxaa kala gumeysanayey laba dal oo ka tirsan qaarada reer yurub Talaaniga oo Somaliya gumeysanayey iyo UK oo Somaliland ah.
Taariikhdu waxay xustaa in qaabka uu gumeysigu ku soo galey labada dal ay kala duwanaayeen dhinaca Somaliya Gumeysigii Talyaanigu wuxuu ku soo galey qaab laga wada hadal oo qasab iyo xoog ah.
Dhinaca kale Somaliland Engiriisku wuxuu ku soo galey heshiis uu la galey madaxdii( Cuqaashii) talada deegaankaas heysay ee reer Somaliland heshiiskaasi oo labada dhinac kala qorteen.
Halkaasi waxaad ka garan gartaa farqiga u dheexeyey xitaa gumeysigii labada dal, kaas oo ku tusinaya Somaliya iyo Somaliland in farqi u dhaxeeyey qaabkii loo gumeysanayey.
Markii la soo gaadhay waayihii xoriyada ee labada dal waxaa 26 June 1960 kii Xoriyadoodii qaatey Somaliland waxaana aqoonsi dawladnimo siiyey 35 dal oo caalamka ka mida oo ay ugu horeeyeen USA,UK iyo China .
1 July 1960 ayaa iyaduna Xoriyada qaadatey Somaliya ila markaana Dawladii Somaliland isku dhiibtey Qarankii cusbaa ee Somaliya si aan shuruudi ku jirin,
Halkaana waxaa ku tasawdey qaranimadii Somaliland, ma hubo xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya naaneysta dadka reer waqooyiga loogu yeedho ee Qaldaamiinta iyo 1 July 1960 balse waxaa aan u maleenayaa hadaney ahaydba xoriyadii 26 June 1960 kii ee sida qaldan loogu hibeyey Somalida Konfureed in ay tahay uun arin ka ag dhow balse dadka maqalkan akhrisandoona Ayaan u dhaafayaa jawabta su’aasha ah 1 July 1960 iyo Naaceysta Qaldaaminta ee reer konfureedku ugu yeedhan reer waqooyiga xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya. Hadii taasi run noqotana Malaga yaabaa in reer waqooyigu markale xoriyadooda u sadqeeyaan hadii ay taasi dhacdana waa maxay naaneysta labaad ee reer konfureedku ku dhijindoonaa reer waqooyiyaga(Somaliland) waxaa oo dhan taariikhda Ayaan u dhaafayaa hadii Allah idmo.
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Waxaa aad moodaa in Cadawga Somaliland iyo kuwa aan ku faraxsaneyn horumarka somaliland in ay dacaayado aan qiimo lahayn miciinsanayaan si ay u majaro habaabiyaan horumarka iyo guusha wada hadalada Somaliland ka soo hoosay shirkii Jabuuti ee bishan June 2020.
Dadku waa dhawr qaybood dad fahansan sida ay wax u socdaan iyo kuwo aan si fiican ula socon herarka diblumaasiyadeed ee qaybaha wada hadalada hadaba wadahadaladii ugu dambeyey waa kuwo ay somaliland ku cadeysay mufqifkeeda inuu yahay laba dal oo Jaar ah oo is kaashada hadii ay somaliya diyaar u tahay.
Hadaba kolba sheeko gaaban oo laga dabakeenaa waxay muujinaysaa in kuwii ku hungoobay rabitaankooda ama danahooda gaarka ahi iney kolba meel daasad ka tumayaan lagu kicinayo dadka aan fahmin ujeedada ka dambeysa wararkan laga dabakeenayo iyo sheekooyinkan aan ka soconeyn,sida warar lagu kalsoon yahay tibaaxayaan dad dano kala duwan leh ayaa markey arkey guusha qadiyada Somaliland kabanka meel kale ka garaacay balse Marwo Edna Adan ayaa inoo faahfaahisay wixii ay arimuhu ahaayeen inagana waxaa inala gudboon in aynu ku kalsoonano madaxdena inooga wakiilka ah wada hadalada oo aynu u muujino taageero tan kale Somaliland maanta ma looga baqayo iney majaraheeda ka weecato waayo dadka reer Somaliland ayaa raba sidaasi iney ku ahaadaan dalkooda iyo qaranimadooda mid aan gorgortan gelin waana rabitaanka saxa ah.
Somaliyana Madaxweynaha mareykanka Mr. Trump ayaa sheegay waxa uu u arko sidaa darteed Somaliya waxaa la gudboon in ay Trump u jawaabaan inta ay ku mushquulayaan Somaliland iney dab geliyaan oo dadkeeda iska horkeenaan, dadka reer Somaliland kuma mashquulsana dibindaabyada Somaliya balse taariikhda ayaa sheegi doonta Somaliya siyaasiinteedu waxay ka rabaan Somaliland!.
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Madaxweynaha Mareykanku wuxuu si aan gabasho lahayn u weeraray Dawladnimada Somaliya isaga oo u soo marey hadal duurxul ah oo uu ku soo halqabsadey gabadh maraeykan Somali ah oo La yidhaa Ilhan Omar kana tirsan Xisbiga Dimoqraadiga ah ee Mareykanka arintani waxay lee dahay laba weji midi waa wajiga Mareykanka iyo dadkiisa ka dhexeeya ee Ilhan iyo Siyaasada Mareykanka taas Mr. Trump waa uu ku qaldan yahay in uu xidhiidh ka dhexeysiiyo arimaha Somaliya ka taagan iyo gabadh Mareykan ah oo dalkeeda maraykanka u shaqayneysa waana arin aad u qaldan shakhsi ahaana waan cambaareynayaa in madaxweyne Mareykan ahi muujiyo nacabka uu u qabo qaybo ka mida bulshadiisa isaga oo ku shaabadeynaya wax aaney geyin kuna dhisan cunsuriday iyo nacab salka ku haya isir.
Arinta Labaad waa arinta uu Madaxweyne Trump uu ku soo gunaanadey in Somaliya ay tahay Meel fowdo ah oo aaney Dawlad,police, nabadgelyo midna aaney ka Jirin arintaa Jawaabteedu maxay u taalaa dawlada Somaliya.
Balse Madaxweyne Trump waxaa su’aalayaa dhowr arimood:
1- Somaliya waxaa ka koobney laba dal oo isku tigey 1 July 1960 waxaana la kala odhan jirey: British Somaliland oo xorowdey 26 June 1960 iyo Italiya Somaliiya oo Xorowdey 1 July 1960 labadaa dal waxay mar labaad kala noqdeen 28 May 1991 ilaa maanta waa laba dal oo kala maqan
Somaliya adaga ayaa afkaga ka sheegay in aanay dawladi ka jirin,nabadi ka jirin,booliis lahayn oo ay fowda uun tahay waxaanuna og nahay in aad Somaliland oo nabad leh police leh dumuqraadiyad iyo xisbiyo badan leh aanad maalina afkaga xitaa ku xusin weliba aad bishan bilowgeedii aad shirkii Jabuuti aad daba ka riixeysey oo aad Somaliya la safney oo aad lahayd waa in Somaliland la heshiisaa, waxaa kale oo aanu ognahay dhaqaalaha aad ku bixiso dhismaha Somaliya adiga oo Somaliland na marwalba ku caadinaya inay Somaliya la heshiiso hadaba su’aasheydu waxay tahay ma waxaad rabtaa meel(Somaliya) aad adiguba aaminsan tahay in aaney dawladi ka jirin in aad somaliland cadaadis ku saartid si ay ula mid noqoto Somaliya taas oo la mid ah (100X0 =0) ?
2- Somaliland maxaad ka Aaminsan tahay Xasuuqii ka dhacay wakhtigii dawladii Somaliya ee , oo weliba dhaalaha lagu xasuuqay hubka iyo taakuleyntaba loo tirinayo in dalka mareykanku gacan weyn ku lahaa?
3- Mareykanku muxuu ugu cadaadinayaa Somaliland in aaney ayaheeda ka tashan oo shacbiga Somaliland oo in ka badan 96 % u codeeyey in ay gobanimadoodii soo ceshadaan kana baxaan midowgii Somaliya ?
Ugu dambeyntii Madaxweynaha Mareykanka Mr. Trump waxaa la gudboon in uu dib u eegis ku sameeyo Siyaasada mareykanka ee ku aadan Somaliya gaar ahaan Somaliland oo ah qaran dhameystirtay hanaanka dawlad wanaaga iyo dimoqraadiyada geeska Afrika iyada oo ku dadaashay sugida abniga mandaqada iyo kan caalamka ee siyaasada bada cas sidaa darteed mareykanka intaan fursada saaxiibtinimo ee Somaliland cid kale uga horeyn miyaanay ahayn in uu xaqiiqada wajaho oo uu xidhiidhka Somaliland iyo mareykanka wanaajiyo hadii kale somaliland oo in badan samreysey waxay sameysan doontaa Saaxiibo kale oo wax la qabta taageerana waxaan ku soo gabababeenayaa A Somali proverb says “If you don’t know what will come of future, you don’t know what is going on now”.
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This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum. Author: Max Chuard, Chief Executive Officer, Temenos COVID-19 is accelerating demands for new banking technologies and cost-cutting efficiencies. Cloud technologies and AI can help banks weather changes brought by COVID-19 and distinguish their offerings in the the long term. […]Digitalization is changing banking – These 3 trends will help shape its future — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
Another natural remedy for losing weight that has raised a few eyebrows is a substance called 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In fact, its been called into question for its safety record. 5-HTP actually replaced tryptophan supplements banned due to its link to a rare and potentially deadly blood disorder. Also, there has been a difference of opinion…Natural Remedies for Losing Weight – 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) — Health
Inkasta oo ay suurta gal tahay in aadnay dawlada Chinahu aaminsanin muhiimada diinta Allah(swt) u leedahay guud ahaanba nolosha adamaha,oo Chinahu mabda ahaan yahay dawlad shuuci ah hadana waxaa dhamaan mabadiida caalamku isku waafaqsan tahay in adamigu xor u ahaado fikirkiisa,diintiisa iyo waxaa uu aaminsan yahay,sidaa darteed Chinaha waxaa la gudboon in uu horiyada diimaha tixgeliyo gaar ahaan dhibaatada baahsan ee uu ku hayo dadka Muslimiinta ah ee Chinaha gaar ahaan kuwa dalkaas ee loo yaqaan Uighurs.
Dad badani waxay Aminsan yihiin in xanuunkan COVID-19 uu yahay digniin Allah oo kuwajahan Xusuusinta Adamaha in ay Cadaalada ilaaliyaan oo aaney ku xadgudbin xuquuqda dadka kale ay u lee yihiin fikirkooda diineed sidaa darteed waxaa ka dhalandoona ciqaabo waaweyn hadii dad lagula kaco dulmi iyo takoorid waxaa uu doono ha aminsanadeed waayo qofka aminaanta fikiriga ah isaga iyo Allah abuuray ayey u dhaxaysaa oo waa xisaab shaqsiyadeed, ma aha mid u taala dawlad iyo cid kale toona sidaa darteed dawlada China waxaa la gudboon inay cadaadiska,dhibta iyo takoorka ka qaado qayaha dadkeeda ka mida ee ay u sameysatey xeryaha lagu ciqaabo dadkeedana u cadaaladsameyso, qof aan dambi kale gelina in lagu bartilmaameedsado waa Muslin waa xaqdaro weyn oo laga galey dadka muslin ka ah iyo xoriyada adamaha.
QM (UN) ayaa qiyaasta in inka badan hal milyan oo muslimiin ah ay ku xabisan yihiin xirooyin ku yaalla gobolka Xinjiang.
Mareykanka ayaa noqday dawladii ugu horeysey ee cunaqabateen ku soo rogta dalka chinaha arin la xidhiidha Musliminta dalkaasi ee lagu hayo xadgudubyada balse caalamka intiisa kale waxay ka daawanayaan daaqadaha,waxaa loo bahay yahay in dawlada china ay ka qaado takoorka ay ku hayso dadkeeda Muslimiinta ah ee iyaga oo dambi gelin lagu dhibaateenayo maxaa Allah ugu hogaansantihiin,Aduunka cidna cidkale kama tirtiri karto aan ahayn Allah doonistiina sidaa darteed adamaha waxaa la gudboon in ay qolowalba fikirkooda loo daayo oo diintooda si kor ah u haystaan diinta Islamkuna waa diin nabadeed oo ogol in shucuubtu kuwada nolaato sinaan,cadaalad iyo isjacayl sidaa darteed chinaha waxaa la gudboon in uu dadkaasi ilaaliyo xuquuqdooda, ma muuqato dhibaato ay dadka muslimiinta ah ee shiinuhu ku hayaan dadka kale ee shiinaha iyo dawladaba balse waa baqdin uu shiinuhu ka qabo diinta islamka sidaa darteed shinahu intii uu cabsi aan jirin iyo nacab shaki ku dhisan u cadaadin lahaa dadka muslinka ah ee dalkiisa waxaa haboon in uu caadi u arko waayo kumanaansanadood ayey dadkani Muslin ahaayeen dhibna kuma hayaan chinaha.
Shirka Jabuuti waxaa uu ahaa mucjisadii 2020 ee Siyaasada geeska Afrika,shirkani wuxuu ahaa mid la sugayey mudo dheer oo dad badani filayeen in maalin uun iman doono shir noociisa ah.
Shirka waxaa uu ahaa mid siyaasiintii soo qabanqaabeyey iyo dalalkii dabada ka wadey toona aaney xisaabta ku darsan DURDURO GEEL BAA KUJABA DAMAACUNA WAA XUN YAHAY,DANTUNA WAA LAMA HURAAN!
Ugu horeyntii waxaa la bilaabay Furitaankii Shirka, nin waliba rabitaankiisii buu ceelka keeney, Jewigii Shirka waxaa bedelay Khudbadii Madaxweynaha Somaliland oo mudo ka badan 20 daqiidadood dhegaha wufuudada qaarkood ku ahayd sawaariikhdii iyo madaafiicidii dawladii Somaliya 1988 kii ku garaaceysey maatidii iyo dadkii rayidka ahaa ee deganaa Somaliland xiligaa,raga qaar baa nidayada ka lahaa mar uun miyuu mudane Muuse bixi afka isku qabto oo uu naga dhaafo taariikhda uu runta ka sheegayo,kashifaada beesha caalamka dhexdeeda marna may fileynin,rag badan kursiga dirqi ayey ugu fadhiyeen maney rabin in ay maqlaan Somaliland xasuuqii loo geystey in lagu xisaabtamayo balse waxay la ahayd in 30 sanood ee Somaliland xorta ahayd la ilaabay.
Wejigii shirka waxaa bedelay xogtii la is xusuusiyey waxaa bedelay in Somaliland Somaliya ka go in ee ay ahaayeen laba dal oo ku midoobey si doonis ah,markii dambena ku kala baxay rabitaanka dadkii markii horaba hormoodka ka ahaa midowgu markey kala kulmeen dalkii ay la midoobeen
Tacadiyada ilaa hada xalka loo la yahay. Somaliland Abaal bay ku lee dahay dadyowga geeska afrika iyo Caalamkaba waayo:
- Itoobiya waxay Somaliland la lee dahay xuduud balaadhan xuduudkaas ciidamada Jamhuuriyada Somaliland baa kaga xijaaban in itoobiya nabadeeda la waxyeeleeyo,itoobiya way kaga nasatey in cadow uga soo galo dhinaca Somaliland 30 Sanoba khatarta itoobiya kaga iman lahayd waxaa kaga gudbanaa dawlada iyo Shacabka Somaliland itoobiya iyada ayaa la weydiin bal iney Somaliland abaalkaa u hayso iyo in kale
- Jabuutina waa la mid sida Somaliland u ilaaliso nabadgelyada itoobiya ee xuduudka ay la wadaagto Somaliland ayaa kan Jabuutina Somaliland u ilaalisaa sidaa darteed Somaliland oo nabad ah waxay dan u tahay Jabuuti iyo Itoobiyaba
- Somaliya iyo Somaliland xuduudka ay wadaagaan waa mid ciidamad qaranka Somaliland ilaaliyaan degenashaha xuduudka ee dhinaca Somaliya waxaa suurta geliyey ciidamada qaranka ee Somaliland inkasta oo Somaliya mar walba carqad ku tahay nabada xuduudkaasi.
- Bulshada caalamka nabadgelyadooda iyo danahoodaba si hagar la’aan ah ayey Somaliland u ilaalisaa waxaa beda dheer ee Somaliland ku nabadgaley isku socodka maraakiibta caalamka iskaga gooja iyaga oo aan 30 sano ee ay Somaliland jirtey aaney jirin hal Markab oo laga afduubay xeebaha balaadhan ee Somaliland iyada oo xitaa caalamku wax tar muuqda u geysan ciidamada bada ee Somaliland oo ah kuwa sida nafhurida ah u ilaaliya nabada ceebaha bada cas inta Somaliland u dhow.
Hadaba dawladaha jarka la ah Somaliland iyo kuwa caalamkaba waxaa ku haboon iney abaalka Somaliland ku lee dahay qirsanaadaan kuna dadaalaan wax la qabadka iyo taageerada qarankan Somaliland oo muujiyey dadal badan.
Tan kale shirkaasi Jabuuti ee todobkan ka socday jabuuti wuxuu huga ka tuurey kuwo badan oo markii horeba aan rabin in xal loo helo mushaakilka somaliya iyo Somaliland kuwaasi oo aad borortooda baraha bulshada ku badan yahay sida ay dadka qaarkii qabaan dadkaa uu shirku qaawiyey waa kuwo iskugu jira :
- Dambiilayaashii xasuuqa u geystey shacabka Somaliland 1988
- Kuwii dilaalinta ka ahaa qadiyada Somaliya iyo Somaliland ee ka ganacsada dhiiga shacbigooda somaliya iyo Somaliland ba oo aan rabin in xal laga gaadho arimahan
- Dad aan fahsaneynba arimaha laysku hayo balse qabyaalidi madax martey iwm.
By Anne Campbell, Ph.D. and students at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies It is not a simple task to prepare students about educational development around the world. At the Middlebury Institute of International Studies, we try to do this by providing international perspectives, practical learning, and immersive education for international careers. To better align […]Using SCOPE to teach educational development — World Education Blog
This is how many people are forcibly displaced worldwide — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum. Author: Johnny Wood, Senior Writer, Formative Content The number of displaced people has reached an all-time high. One in every 97 people on the planet was forced to flee their home by the end of 2019. The past decade […]This is how many people are forcibly displaced worldwide — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
Commission adopts White Paper on foreign subsidies in the Single Market — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
This article is brought to you in association with the European Commission. The European Commission has adopted a White Paper dealing with the distortive effects caused by foreign subsidies in the Single Market. The Commission now seeks views and input from all stakeholders on the options set out in the White Paper. The public consultation, which will […]Commission adopts White Paper on foreign subsidies in the Single Market — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
The request comes a week before the highly anticipated memoir was set to be published.
The Trump administration sued the former national security adviser John R. Bolton on Tuesday to try to delay publication of his highly anticipated memoir about his time in the White House, saying the book contained classified information that would compromise national security if it became public.
The book, “The Room Where It Happened,” is set for release on June 23. Administration officials have repeatedly warned Mr. Bolton against publishing it.
Mr. Bolton made clear in a statement this week that his book contained explosive details about his time at the White House. He and Mr. Trump clashed on significant policy issues like Iran, North Korea and Afghanistan, and in his book, Mr. Bolton also confirmed accusations at the heart of the Democratic impeachment case over the president’s dealings with Ukraine, according to details from his manuscript previously reported by The New York Times.
The Justice Department accused him of short-circuiting a government review that he had agreed to participate in for any eventual manuscript before even accepting the post in 2018.
Mr. Bolton is breaking that agreement, “unilaterally deciding that the prepublication review process is complete and deciding for himself whether classified information should be made public,” department lawyers wrote in a breach of contract lawsuit against Mr. Bolton filed in federal court in Washington.
The book’s publisher, Simon & Schuster, has already printed and distributed copies, and the lawsuit did not name it as a party, in an apparent nod to the constitutional and practical impediments to trying to stop it. Instead, the Justice Department asked a judge to seize Mr. Bolton’s proceeds from the book deal and to order him to try to persuade Simon & Schuster to pull back the book and dispose of copies until the review is completed.
- Thanks for reading The Times.
Mr. Bolton’s lawyer, Charles J. Cooper, did not immediately respond to a request for comment. He has said that his client acted in good faith and that the Trump administration is abusing a standard review process to prevent Mr. Bolton from revealing information that is merely embarrassing to President Trump, but not a threat to national security.
A spokesman for Simon & Schuster called the lawsuit “nothing more than the latest in a long-running series of efforts by the administration to quash publication of a book it deems unflattering to the president.”
While insider books vex many administrations, it is rare for one to sue to delay them before publication. Several former White House lawyers from Democratic and Republican administrations said they could not recall a similar legal effort to stop a book by a former White House official.
Source : http://www.nytimes.com
3 challenges facing global gig economy growth after COVID-19 — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum. Author: Yan Xiao, Project Lead, Digital Trade, World Economic Forum & Janette Chung, Product Director, Jobox.ai COVID-19 is accelerating the growth of the cross-border offline-to-online (O2O) gig economy. Cross-border payments need to catch up for the cross-border gig economy […]3 challenges facing global gig economy growth after COVID-19 — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
Madaxweynaha Somaliland Mudane Muuse Biixi 14 June 2020 Djibouti
Madaxweynaha Somaliya Mudane Maxamed Cabdilahi. Farmaajo is coming soon
Somaliya iyo Somaliland waa laba dal oo walaalo ah,isku mid ah balse waayuhu kala duwan waxaa kala qaybiyey gumeystihii caalamkaba kala qaybiyey,ee dhigay xuduudaha iyo khariiradaha kala duwan ee caalamka maanta ka jira ee loo aqoon yahay kuwo rasmi ah Sidaa darteed Somaliland waxay Ilaalinaysaa xuduudaheeda ay la wadaagto Somaliya, Somaliya iyo Somaliland waxay midoobeen 1 July 1960 kii Waxayna Kala noqdeen 18 May 1991,maanta waayaha labada dal waa kala duwan yihiin waayo:-
1- Somaliya waa dal ku jira marxalada gacanta bulshada caalamka oo waxaa ilaaliya UNISOM ciidamo ka Socda ,Halka Somaliland ay nabadgelyadeeda Masuul ka yihiin Ciidamo Somalilander ah oo suga dhamaanba amaanka iyo kala dambeynta xuduudaha Somaliland
2- Somaliya Maamulka soocdimaheeda waxaa maamula xoogag kala duwan oo kala hadaf ah sida Alshabaab,dawlada federalka ah,Dawlad goboleedyada, UNISOM ,dawladaha Jaarka la ah sida kuwa Kenya iyo Etoobiya Halka Somaliland maamulka dalkeeda uu gacanta ugu jiro hayadaha dawliga ah ee Somaliland kuwaas oo leh dhamaan waxyaha saldhiga u ah dawlad madaxbanaan
3- Somaliya nabad kama jirto maalinkasta waxaa ku dhinta dad aan waxba galabsan kuwaas oo markhaati u ah in aaney nabadgelyada somaliya tahay mida ugu liidata ee aduunka madaxa banaan, halka Somaliland degaanadeedu ay yihiin kuwo nabada oo leh isla xisaabtan iyo ilaalinta nabada.
Hadaba Somaliland oo xukunta dhamaan degaanada Somaliland nabadeeduna sugan tahay weliba kaalin muuqada kaga jirta nabada geeska afrika xuduudaheeda ka adag sugta nabada jaararkeeda in Somaliya oo aan ka jirin nabadi ka taliyaan kooxo kala duwan in maanta laga hadlo midnimo waa fikir aan sax ahayn ugu yaraan waa in somaliya la soo dhisaa cid keliya ay ka talisaa ka dib laga wada hadlaa danaha labada umadood iyo dal balse dhul gubanaya oo aan dabkaa laga bakhtiin in dabkii la soo qaado oo somaliland la keeno caqligaasi ma mid caafimaad qabaa soo ma aha aan dabka sudho dhulkaaga nabada ah. Balse hadii dabkaa loo soo gudbiyo somaliland yaa ka faa’iidaya fikirka saxa ahi waa og yahay danta iyo macaashka ugu badan iney ka helayaan Al-shabaab,Qabqablayaalka dagaanka iyo dalalka dantooda ka arka dagaalada iyo kharbudaada dalalka ah waxaana guul darada ugu weyn la kulmidoona Ethoipa iyo Jabouti oo Somaliland nabadeedu kaga gudban tahay sharar badan oo aan indhaha caadiga ahi arki karin hadii aan weyneyso lagu eegin, Somaliya awalba waa gubaneysey oo dabku dab ugama duwana Somalilandna way iska moosin fidida dabka balse jabouti iyo Ethoipa ayaaney xaalkoodu noqon waxbadso wax beel bay lee dahay Sidaa darteed Badheedhaha dadka Somaliland waxaa uu yahay Dabka Xamar qabsaday halkiisa ha lagu damiyo Somaliland na halgu garabgalo adkeynta nabadeeda hagar daamadana halaga ilaaliyo hadii kale dabkaa muqdisho ka holcaya patrol ka ku sii shuba si holocu u gaadho meelo nabada oo ay ka mid yihiin dalalka jaarka ah wooyo fidmada meel ku kooban hadii la rabo in somaliland dabkeeda la sudho Allah kaga filan balse cidina ka faa’iidimeyso fidmo hor leh.
Edna, awarded an honorary doctorate in the School of Health and Social Care, was the first Somali woman to study in the UK, and the first to work as a qualified nurse
Edna Adan Ismail (Nursing, 1956), who has been awarded an honorary doctorate in the School of Health and Social Care, was the first Somali woman to study in the UK, and the first to work as a qualified nurse. She is also Somaliland’s first female politician, and has built her own teaching hospital and university, with the aim of raising standards of healthcare and education in her homeland.
“When I was growing up in British Somaliland, girls didn’t go to school. My parents were both literate, though, and our house was full of books. My father invited the local boys to come and sit on our veranda after school, and hired a tutor to help them with their homework. That’s where I first began to decipher the mysteries of reading and writing. Eventually I was sent to school in Djibouti, in French Somaliland, where my aunt was a teacher.
“My mother’s female friends were worried that if I got an education, no one would want to marry me. They couldn’t understand why I wasn’t happy to stay at home and learn to cook like the other girls. I wanted to get educated, and I wanted to run and play and climb trees like the boys. I proved them all wrong in the end, as I did all those things and still ended up marrying the man who had been the president of Somaliland!
Healthcare from an early age
“From an early age, I worked alongside my father in his hospital. I’d go in and help him during the school holidays, or whenever he needed an extra pair of hands. There were no bandages, so one of my jobs would be to cut sheets into strips, boil them, iron them and roll them up. If he had to go away, he’d leave me notes: make sure they feed this child properly, or remove those sutures. I’d listen to his frustrations too, about the lack of materials and poor facilities. I promised myself that one day I would create the kind of hospital my father would have loved to work in.
“I came to London to study pre-nursing at the Borough Polytechnic in 1954. I had a scholarship paid for by the British government. I’d never travelled further than Djibouti before but I’d seen films and pictures of London and knew what it looked like, although the sheer size and number of people came as a surprise. My first home was in digs in Balham. The family had children around my age, and one of the daughters taught me how to ride the buses and get around. I’m still in touch with them today.
“Midwifery was not my first choice of specialisation. I really wanted to specialise in surgery. It was the one time I remember my father really questioning one of my decisions. He said, yes, surgery is great. But what are you going to do for the women back home in Somaliland who need you at the most vulnerable time in their lives? And I thought, after all the opportunities I’ve had and the freedom I’ve enjoyed, I should think about giving something back. I did Part 1 and fell in love with midwifery.
“There was never any question in my mind that I would come back to Somaliland. I was very clear that the knowledge and experience I was gaining in England was for the benefit of the people here. When I came back, there was a definite air of optimism. The British had left, and Somaliland was independent. Still, the infrastructure was virtually non-existent and no one knew what to do with a female nurse, nor how to pay one – I worked for 22 months without a salary.
Getting into politics
“Becoming the First Lady gave me an opportunity to be a role model. The assumption was that I would give up working, but I didn’t. Many people thought I was doing a great disservice to my husband, but he was always very supportive. It was around this time – in the late 1960s – that I started training auxiliaries in the hospital to take better care of the women. From there, I started inviting girls who’d been my pupils back when I was a schoolteacher to come in and help me. Their families didn’t want them to get involved with the patients. But slowly, slowly, they began to get interested and excited by the possibilities. Of that first group, five got scholarships to study in England, and three came back to work here. That’s really how nursing in this country got started.
“How do you build a hospital in a country with no infrastructure? You just get up and do it. The Edna Adan Maternity Hospital is actually my second hospital – the first, in Mogadishu in neighbouring Somalia, fell into the hands of the warlords during the civil war. The fact that there was no infrastructure, and that so many people doubted me, just made me more determined. I put everything I had into it – all my savings from my years working with WHO, and the proceeds from selling my jewellery and my car – plus donations from the local community and from the diaspora worldwide. I always kept that picture in my mind of the woman who is smelly, who is bleeding, who doesn’t have anywhere else to go. That’s the person I want to help.
“I was co-opted into becoming a politician. When I was first asked to become the Minister for Social Affairs, I said no. My hospital had only been open for five months, and I felt like a mother with a new baby. Then the new president got his wife on the case and she used the magic words, remember, you’ll be opening the door for other women. So I agreed to split my time 50/50. There were no buildings, so we turned a floor of the hospital into the Ministry. From there, I went on to become Foreign Minister.
“Now we have 200 staff, and I’ve established a university too, with 1500 students. We offer courses in nursing, midwifery, public health, nutrition, veterinary health, pharmacy, laboratory and medicine– it’s very comprehensive. This is my way of helping us develop and keep the talent we so desperately need in the country, and stopping our young people falling prey to human trafficking and terrorism. My next target is teacher training. We need to professionalise teaching here, and make sure our children are getting a proper education.
On taking time off
“I was born with a strong desire to fix things. Why should I have downtime? When I need to recharge my batteries, I go out to my family’s camel farms and feed the newborn calves – that’s very therapeutic. But I don’t take much time off.”
I’m 81 this year, and I don’t have time to waste. There are still so many things I want to do. Holidays can wait.
– Edna Adan IsmailSources: LSBU (London South Bank University )
Dhamaantiin aynu u soo ducayno Edo Khadra Cabdi-Dhuudhi oo Saaka Ku geeriyootey Cariga Mareykanka in Alle Naxariistiisa Jano Farduusa Geeyo Amin Yaa Rabi……
Somaliland iyo Somaliya waxay midoobeyn 1 July 1960 kii midowgana waxaa keenay reer Somaliland arintaasi waa mid la isku waafaqsan yahay,oo aan uu muran ka jirin. 18 May 1991 ayaa hadana dadka reer Somaliland la soo noqdeen xoriyadoodii arintana iyaga ayaa keli ku ahaa sidii ay midowgaba u geeyeen konfur ayey ula soo noqdeen oo ku soo celiyeen waqooyi xoriyadii dib ula soo noqdeen.
Arimahan ayaa la gudboon bulshada caalamka hadii ay rabaan in guul laga gaadho hashiis waara oo dhexmara Somaliland iyo Somaliya:
- Arinta ugu horeysaa waa in caalamku fahmaan in laba dal oo siman oo midoobey iney ahaayeen Somaliya iyo Somaliland sidaa darteedna wada hadal kastaa noqdo mid dhexmaraya laba dal oo mar midnimo ka dhaxaysey,oo ku kala baxay labada dhinac ee imika matalayaana siman yihiin iyada oo meel la iska dhigayo muranka.
- Waa in gartooda labad dhinacba loo dhageystaa oo loo qiimeeyaa si cadaalad ah oo aan madmodow ku jirin
- In Dhibtii xasuuqii, burburkii aan naxarista lahayn ee loo geestey Shacbiga Somaliland Meel la saaro,dadkii ka dambeeyeyna Sharciga la horkeeno
- In caalamku fahmo dadka reer Somaliland in ay ka go’an tahay oo go’aan shacab tahay la soo noqoshada gobanimadooda cid khasbi kartaana aaney jirin waliba lagu taageero oo gacan caalamku ka siiyo hadafka shacabka Somaliland.
- In Caalamku ogaado in isku daykasta oo cadaadis lagu saaro Somaliland iney dib ula midowdo Somaliya ay ka dhalandoonto dhibaato weyn oo nabada geeska iyo tan caalamkaba khatar gelineysa arintaasina loo baahan yahay in laga foojignaado.
- Dawlada federalka ah ee Somaliya waa in caalamku runta u sheegaa oo dhibaatada iyo faragelinta ay ku hayso Somaliland ay ka deysaa waxna laga qabtaa
- Somaliya iyo Somaliland waa in lagu wada hadalsiiyaa sidii ay nabadgelyo ugu wada noolaan lahaayeen,isku kaashan lahaayeen iyaga oo laba dal ah oo walaalo ah.
- Dawladaha caalanka qaarkood ayaa si aan maangal ahayn u raba in arinta somaliya iyo Somaliland lagu dhexgalo taasi waxay keenaysaa degenaansho la’aan iyo natiijo tabon oo ka dhigeysa in aaney Somaliya weligeed degin sidaa darteed waa in Somaliland iyo Somaliya mid walba si gaara loola macaamilaa oo ereyga odhanaya somaliya lama kala goonayo ee khiyaaliga ah meesha laga saaraa somaliya hore ayaa loo kala gooyey shan uga dhigteen kolkaa markey doonaan iyagu ha isku soo noqdaanee waa in faraha laga qaadaa arimahaasi waa kuwa keliya ee nabad iyo horumarka Somaliya dib ugu xalismidoonto.
- Arinta la gudboon dadka iyo dawladaha daneeya Somaliya Arimaheeda horta ha isku keeneen Koonfurtii Somaliya oo u kala fadhida dawlad goboleedyo kala furfuran oo aaney jirin wada shaqayn ka dhaxaysaa marka koonfuri mid noqoto ayaa Somalilandna wada hadalka rasmiga ah u furan yahay.
It is often forgotten that the worst dictators are often, early in their careers, lauded as reformers. In Iraq, Saddam Hussein was initially embraced as a “pragmatist” by diplomats and journalists alike. In 1991, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded Burmese dissident Aung San Suu Kyi the Nobel Peace Prize; only in subsequent decades would she expose herself as an apologist for ethnic cleansing. Of course, she is not the only figure to sully the preeminent peace prize’s legacy.
In Africa, the trend of reformists becoming dictators has been especially acute.
In April 1976, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger declared that the United States supported black rule in Rhodesia, today’s Zimbabwe. He was cautious about Soviet and Cuban inroads among certain liberation movements. President Jimmy Carter, however, had no such caution. He drew parallels between Robert Mugabe’s Marxist Zimbabwe African National Union and the civil rights fight in the U.S. South. Mugabe was, therefore, a reformer and a social justice warrior. Many officials likewise greeted Isaias Afwerki as a democrat and reformer when he became Eritrea’s first president upon its 1993 independence. Indeed, Bill Clinton congratulated his Eritrean counterpart on “Eritrea’s good start on the road to democracy and free markets” when, in 1995, they met in the Oval Office. Diplomats likewise once praised Rwandan leader Paul Kagame for his progressive attitudes toward women and liberal approach to the economy, but most human rights groups today criticize him for intolerance to dissent and human rights abuses.
Now, it appears, another Nobel laureate, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, may be heading down the same path. Perhaps buoyed by the praise he receives on his frequent post-Nobel trips abroad, Abiy on Wednesday announced that he would remain in office beyond the end of his term. For all of Abiy’s enthusiastic and, at times, naive peacemaking abroad, his tenure has exacerbated ethnic tensions at home. Reelection was no certainty, but his decision to seek to hold power extra-constitutionally could precipitate conflict in Africa’s second-most populous country.
Not to be outdone, Somali President Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo has also signaled he seeks to delay elections and remain in power. Farmajo’s tenure has already seen a backsliding of democracy and resurgence of the al Qaeda-affiliated al Shabab terror group. If the deeply unpopular Farmajo tries to hold onto power, he will return Somalia into full-blown civil war.
The U.S., in recent years, may have diminished presence on the world stage, but the cards the White House and State Department have still matter. From a realist standpoint, Abiy and Farmajo are both weaker than they themselves admit or realize. Abiy may seek to become the new Mugabe, and Farmajo the new Siad Barre, but their respective peoples will not stand for it. Unbridled ambition will lead to civil war in their respective states. This is in no one’s interest. Rather than promote silly photo-ops with regional presidential summits, like that which the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs plans for this coming week in Djibouti, the U.S. government should signal both to Abiy and Farmajo that they risk pariah status if they continue their undemocratic tendencies.
Central to President Trump’s international philosophy is the idea of restraint: The U.S. should not deploy its forces across the globe in pursuit of agendas that do not directly impact the security of the American homeland. In these troubled economic times, that makes sense, but it requires effective diplomacy now to avoid scenarios where state failure mandates far more expensive responses. The best way to promote regional security is to continue to cultivate democracy and provide a peaceful mechanism for ordinary citizens to hold ineffective leaders and would-be dictators to account.
Michael Rubin (@Mrubin1971) is a contributor to the Washington Examiner’s Beltway Confidential blog. He is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and a former Pentagon official.
Hargeisa(HWN):-Geerida ayaa laga horaysiiyey nolosha. Waxa la isugu xidhay geerida iyo nolosha
Hargeisa(HWN):-Geerida ayaa laga horaysiiyey nolosha. Waxa la isugu xidhay geerida iyo nolosha sida aayaddu sheegtay in dadka lagu jitaabiyo sida ay ugu kala dhaqmaan ifka ay joogaan. Jidka toosan Rabbaw.
Illaahay ha u naxariisto Marxuun Cali Maxamed Xasan(Oorseef). Waxa Marxuunku ku dhashay magaalada Berbera hooyada reer magaalanimada iyo ilbaxnimada dadka Somaliland, Somali Galbeed iyo Puntland.
Waxa uu ka dhashay qoys maalqabeen ah oo aabbihii tijaarta Berbera ee caanka ah ayuu ka mid ahaa. Waxa Aabbihii uu xidhiidh dhow la lahaa Marxuun Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim oo uu taageere u ahaa, xataa marar ayuu dhaqaale ku taageeray.
Marxuun Cali Qoorseef waxa uu waxbarashadiisa ku qaatay Berbera iyo Sheekh. Waxa uu aqoonta hawlaha maraakiibta, dekadaha, kastamada uu ku soo bartay: waddanka Iran waqtigii boqorku (Shaah) xukumo jiray iyo wadankii Federal Germany Republic ee West Germany la odhan jiray.
Boqortooyada Sucuudiga ayuu u shaqo tegay, dabadeena ganacsi u gaar ayuu galay.Sannadkii 1992, Marxuun Cali Qoorseef ayuu Hargeysa iyo Berbera ku soo noqday oo burbursan ilaa maanta 2020 sidii ayuu u joogay. Waxa uu door weyn ka qaatay dib-u-dhiskii dalka, gaar ahaan Wasaaradda Maaliyadda ee halbawlaha qaranka ah. Waxa uu ka mid noqday shaqaalihii u horreeyey ee loo qaatay kastamka Berbera (1993) ee Madaxweyne Cigaal imtixaanka ka qaaday, kuwaasoo Marxuun Cali uu noqday qofkii ugu sarreeyey imtixaankaasi.
Xillal kala duwan ayuu ka qabtay Wasaaradda Maaliyadda Waaxda Kastamada, taas oo uu muddo dheer ahaa Agaasimaha Waaxda iyo Agaasime-ku-xigeenkeeda. Hawlo bundhig u noqday Wasaaradda Maaliyadda iyo kobcinta dakhliga dalka oo loo aayey ayuu hirgeliyey.
1. Taarifada cashuuraha horumarinteeda isaga ayaa hormood ka ahaa.
2. Barnaamijka hawlgelinta Haaama shidaalka ee Sharkaddii Total ee ilaa maanta lagu shaqeeyo ayuu iyana hormood ka ahaa.
3. Habka xiriirka ganacsiga ee Itoobiya iyo Somaliland iyo (Berbera corridor) iyo ( transit trade) ayuu xeerarkooda iyo heshiisyadooda ka midha dhaliyey.
Sannadihii (2007 ilaa 2010) xukuumaddii Madaxweyne Daahir Rayaale Kaahin; waxa uu ahaa Wasiirka Horumarinta Kaluumaysiga, waqtigaas kadib Wasaaradda Maaliyadda ayuu khabiir ahaan kula shaqayn jiray. Waxa uu ahaa (Institution Memory) ama xogogaal hawlaha Wasaaradda Maaliyadda soo martay oo mar walba loogu baahnaa.
Marxuunku waxa uu ahaa qof dabeecad suuban oo macaariif badan leh oo bulshaawi ah. Marxuun Madaxweyne Cigaal ayaa igu yidhi isaga oo ka hadlaya Maxamuud Saalax Nuur (Fagadhe); “Waa ninka qudha ee Dhulbahante aan hubo inuu Somaliland aaminsan yahay.” Haddaba, sidaas oo kale; “Cali Qoorseef waxa uu ahaa ninka qudha ee Warsangli ee aan hubay inuu Somaliland aaminsan yahay.”
Marxuun Cali Qoorseef waxa uu ifka kaga tegay shan wiil iyo saddex gabdhood iyo hooyadood abaalkiisii qarankooda ayey ka sugayaan. Marxuun Cali Qoorseef oo lagu aasay Hargeysa, Aabbihiina Hargeysa ayaa lagu aasay 41 sanno ka hor, Marxuunka iyo dhammaan ummadda Nebi Muxamed (SCW) Ilaahay ha u naxariisto oo kuwa nicmaystay jannada ha ka yeelo. Aamiin… Aamiin… Aamiin…
Waxaanu ka soo qaadaney maqaalkan hadhwanaagnews
Hadii aanu nahay bahda hogaanka.org waxaanu tacsi u diraynaa qoyskii ,qaraabadii,asxaabtii iyo umada reer Somaliland ee uu ka baxay Marxuum Cali Qoorseef samir iyo iimaan inuu inaga siiyo , Waxaanuna uga baryaynaa Allah (swt) naxariistii Jano inuu siiyo aamin, aamin ,amiin yaa Rabi….
Somaliland waxaa ka jirta nabad buuxda nabaduna waa mida aas aaska u ah nolosha aadamaha dadka cilmi ahaan u darsa nabada waxaa ay yidhaahdan :
Nabaddu waa fikir saaxiibtinimo bulsho iyo wada noolaansho iyada oo aysan jirin cadaawad iyo rabshad.
Nabadu waxay dhistaa,xoojisaa oo dib u soo celisaa dhamaanba kaabayaasha dhaqaale ee qaran ama bulsho. Nabadu waa rejada qarankasta, balanqaadka siyaasi kasta iyo baaqa diinta iyo rajeyada qofkasta oo ducaysanaya.
Nabadu qiimahaas ayey ku lee dahay nolosha adamiga qofkasta oo aadami ahina wuxuu ku nool yahay rajo nabadeed.
Hadii aynu isla garaney kaalinta nabadu ku lee dahay nolosha aadamaha maxaa ay qaar inaga mid ahi u arki la yihiin nicmadaa weyn ee Allah inagu maneystey hadii aynu reer Somaliland nahay, mee mahadnaqii Allah(swt) ee inagu galadeystey nimcadaa nabadgelyada iyo arsaaqaha kale ee uu igu maneystey.
Siyaasiin iyo Dadkale oo reer Somaliland ah baa ku dooda 29 Sano ee Somaliland Jirtey Gego cidla ah bay fadhiday ee maxaa u qabsoomey, citiraaf ma hayso iwm
Somalidu waxay ku maahmaahdaa: wax isweydiine ma xumee wax isweydaarin baa daran
Somaliland Allah ayey ugu mahadnaqaysaa horumarka iyo nabada uu ku manaytey 29 Sanadood ee ay ka maqneyd midowgii Somaliya wax weyna wey u qabsoomeen waxaa ka mida ah arimaha u qabsoomey wakhtigaa :
- Nabadgelyo aan xitaa kuwa ku doodaya caalamka ayaa na citiraafsan aaney haysan,citiraafku qaran nabad ah ma dhiso balse maskaxda iyo hogaanka toosan ayaa abuura qaran nabad ah, Somaliya waxay haysataa citiraafkii Somaliya wada lahayd ee labada gobol ku midoobeen balse wax uu u taray ma jiro oo waakaa aynu aragno,in cabsida somaliya iyo ilaalinta ciidamo shisheeye oo kor u dhaafaya 25 kun oo askari ku sugan yihiin si ay u sugaan nabada muqdisho iyo hareeraheeda, Somaliland se ciidamadii qaranka Somaliland ayaa hantey nabada dalkooda oo suga dhamaanba xuduudaha qaranka Somaliland iyaga oo kaashanaya bulshada Somaliland meel kastaba iyo mar kastaba.
- Somaliya waxay ku jirtaa xaalad gumeysi qarsoon oo dalal badani ka dukaansadaan, halka Somaliland tahay dal xora oo aan la aqoosaneyn Somaliland sharafteeda qaranimo cidna ugama habrato halka somaliya ay jiraan ururo iyo dalal si rasmi ah ugu yeedhiya arimaha masiirka dalkooda waayo waxay ku bixiyaan dhaqaale,waxay ku caawiyeen ciidama suga nabadgelyadooda,sidaa darteed ayey u maamulaan una jiheeyaan somaliya halka Somaliland ay ka madax banaan tahay dhaqaale iyo ciidamo nabadeed oo loogu tar sheegto.
- Somaliland Waxa ay dhisatey dhamaan haydaha nabadgelyada ee qaran dhameystiran kuwaas oo si tayo leh u wada shaqeeya kala amar qaata,isla socda oo ku dhisan nidaamka carsiga ah ee haydaha qaran dhameystiran, halka Somaliya ay ka dhisan yihiin hayado nabadgelyo oo xitaa is maamulin ee gobol kasta lee yahay ciidamadiisa sirdoonkiisa,boliskiisa oo aan is xukumin ee mid walba gaarkiisa u shaqeenayo, oo aan lahay talisyo mideysan sidaa darteed maxay tareysaa citiraaf Ayaan haystaa afka uun ah oo aanad lahayn haybad dawlad madax banaan oo shaqeynaya.
- Somaliland Ciidamadeeda Qaranku waa kuwo sharaftooda,kartidooda, nidaamkooda iyo Akhlaaqdooduba ka muuqato bulshada dhexdeeda waa kuwo cudud ciidan oo qaran la aqoonsan yahay leh, waana kuwo kalsooni ka muteystey dadka Somaliyeed guud ahaan gaar ahaana dadka reer Somaliland,waxayna ilaaliyaan xuquuqda adamaha,sharafta dadka,waxay ilaaliyaan shuruucda caalamiga ah ee bila adamaha, halka Somaliya Ciidamadeeda lagu eedeyo ku tumashada xuquuqda adamaha,tacadiya bulshada iyo qorashada caruur yar yar oo la ciidameeyo eeg warbixinadii ugu dambeyey halkan: All Somali parties to the conflict commited serious abuses against children, including killings, maiming, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers.
- Somaliya oo dawlad la aqoonsan yahay ah kuna faaneysa ayaa tacadiya dilalka qorsheysani caadi ka yihiin waxaa ugu dambeyey 7 wiil eek a shaqeenayayey gargaarka caafimaad iyo ninkii degaankaasi ee inta ciidamo hubeysen oo wata deriska ciidamada federalka somaliya intey xaruntii ka shaqeenayeen ka afduubteen meel u dhow ku xasuuqay sawirada inamadiina waa kuwan aan ka soo qaatey bbc.somali:
Inkasta oo aan ilaa hada cadeyn cida ka dambeysey oo Allah(swt) og yahay balse waxaa ay I soo xusuusinayaa dhaqankii ciidamadii siyaad bare sanadadii sideetamaadkii marka jabhadiihii hubeysnaa wax yeelo u geystaan ciidamadaasi waxay xasuuqi jireen dadka degaankaasi degan sida la sheegay dhacdadanina waxay ka dambeysey miino loo aasay ciidamada fedrealka ee degaankaasi marey oo ay waxyeelo ka soo gaadhey.
Somaliland waxay kaga badbaadey la soo noqoshada midowgii ficiladaasi iyo kuwo la mida,hadaba dadka maanta ku hadaaqaya Somaliland aqoonsi ma hayso ee meel cidla ah bay joogtaa,waa kuwo aan fahminba qabka dawladnimada iyo xidhiidhka caalamiga,somalilaland aqoonsi wax ka weyn bey heshay 29 sanadood oo ah qaranimadeedii oo ay la soo noqotey,nabad gelyo taama, dadkii somalilaland oo yeeshay rejo cusub walaalnimo iyo isku soo dhawaansho.ganacsi xora oo furan, waxbarasho daah furan oo kala duwan,dimoqraadiyad iyo doorashooyin,ciidamo nabadgelyo oo laysku haleyn karo,arimaas oo dhani iyo kuwo aanan xusinba waa mahad Allah (swt) loogu shugri noqo.
Dawladnimaduna aqoonsi calamiya kuma timaato balse waxay ku timaadaa dhisme dawladnimo oo ka taam gala meel ka mida degaanada caalamka oo leh dadkii,dhulkii,xuduudihii,calankii,lacagtii ,ciidamadii,garsoorkii iyo dhamaan kaabayaashii dhaqaale,bulsho,siyaasadeed arintaasi ayaa keenta danaha aqoonsiga caalamiya Somaliland maanta way haysaa intaa aqoonsiguna wuxuu ku imanayaa danaha isbedelaya ee caalamka oo aan la ma leyn Karin,balse baahida caalamku u baahan yahay Somaliland ayaa keenaysa aqoonsiga afka lagala baqayo hada waayo diplomasiyada iyo xidhiidhka caalamigu waa mid ku yimaata danaha kala duwan ee dalalka caalamka,iyo tartanka dhinacyada badan leh ee caalamka isbedelaasi waa midka maanta ku xidhay Somaliland caalamka balse hadii dadka reer Somaliland iyo dawladoodu doonayaan in ay soo dhawooto aqoonsigu waa iney isha ku hayaan arimahan:
- Sii hagaajinta nidaamka dawliga ah
- Dhisida qorshe dhaqaale ,caafimaad iyo bulsho oo ku wajahan higsiga dhow iyo kan fog ee Somaliland
- Xoojinta iyo Kasbashada saaxiibadii hore iyo kuwo cusub ee caalamka
- Hagaajinta iyo habeynta shuruucda dalka iyo garsoorka
- La xisaabtanka xisbiyada siyaasadeed ee dalka mid muxaafida iyo mid mucaaridaba
- Xilalka saree e muhiimka ah oo dhiibo dadka aqoonta,kartid iyo waayo aragnimada u leh daacadana ah
- Kobcinta garaadka iyo aqoonta da yarta iyada oo laga dhisayo dhinaca wadaniyada,qaranimada iyo isdhexgalka bulshada
Nabadgelya Somaliland ma jirto wax loo dhigaa oo ka qaalisan sidaa darteed citiraafka Somaliya ay sheegato waxaa ka qiimo badan nabada iyo xoriyada ka jirta Somaliland taas ayaa keeneysa citiraafka Somaliland waayo Somaliland maanta dhulkeedu waa kuwo gacanta ugu jira cidii wax ka soo galena waxay kala xaajooneysaa Dawlada Somaliland ama ha la aqoonsanaado ama yaan la aqoonsanaane iyada ayaa ka Talisa markaa marka ay dani timaato cid kasta oo maanta ku cadaadineysa lama aqoonsana iyada yaa ugu horeyneysa in ay la xaajooto Somaliland balse inta aaney dani ka soo gelin waxa aynu ka maqli Somaliland lama aqoonsana aqoonsiga caalamku akhristoo waa danaha kala kala yeesho iyo muhiimada garkaa kugu muuqda danahaaga.
There is no one therapy that does it all. And, to complicate it further, like most “mental” problems”, it’s not simple to diagnose. In the younger ages, it’s easily confused with mental retardation, or brain damage. What are the known causes of autism? Perhaps the best known today is the usage of mercury ( thimeroserol)…Solving the Autism Problem — Health
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On 1 June, Somaliland’s President Muse Bihi Abdi officially inaugurated the first 12 km of Berbera Corridor, a trade and transport route that connects landlocked Ethiopia to Somaliland’s Port of Berbera on the Gulf of Aden.
The Addis Ababa-Berbera highway is being funded by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Together with the US$442 billion expansion of the Port of Berbera by another Emirati company, Dubai’sDP World, the highway will turn Berbera into a major regional trading hub.
On one level, Somaliland is merely investing in what is likely to be a lucrative commercial venture, attracting more exports and imports from its much bigger and richer neighbour. But the Berbera highway clearly also has a more strategic purpose – to put an important political fact on the ground.
That is, to make Berbera an integral part of Ethiopia’s economic network – and therefore also Somaliland. To the degree that Berbera becomes indispensable for Ethiopia, to that degree is Somaliland recognised – though only implicitly of course – as an independent state.
The Berbera project is important to Ethiopia’s strategic imperative of access to the sea
Achieving such recognition has been Somaliland’s eternal quest – so far with no apparent success. Neither Ethiopia nor any other country explicitly recognises it as a sovereign nation. All officially still consider it to be a wayward province of Somalia. And there are no signs on the immediate horizon that any country is about to take the plunge and be the first to recognise the independent state of Somaliland.
Yet because of its implicit recognition of Somaliland, the Berbera Port-highway project has annoyed Somalia. Two years ago when Somaliland and DP World ceded 19% of the Berbera Port project to Ethiopia, Somali President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed Farmaajo, without mentioning names, warned foreign countries and companies not to ‘cross the line and put to question the sovereignty of Somalia.’
Ethiopian President Abiy Ahmed Ali’s government duly pledged respect for Somalia’s sovereignty a few months later. Yet Abiy, who ascended to Ethiopia’s prime ministership in April 2018, has shown no signs of abandoning the Berbera project. The corridor is important to Ethiopia’s strategic imperative of access to the sea. This is especially because cooling relations with Djibouti since Abiy’s rapprochement with Eritrea have placed something of a question mark over Ethiopia’s main maritime outlet through that country.
However Abiy, the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize winner, is also exercising diplomatic skill. In February this year he hosted a meeting between Farmaajo and Bihi in Addis Ababa to try to help them patch up their quarrel.
The Berbera highway also has a strategic purpose – to put an important political fact on the ground
The encounter seems to have borne some fruit as the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Somalia, James Swan, told the Security Council earlier this month that ‘in regard to Somalia-“Somaliland” relations, we are encouraged that dialogue is ongoing at senior levels and that both sides have indicated a willingness to maintain communication and pursue further discussions.’
Abiy’s intervention as mediator is intriguing. One might think it would be Somalia that would consider Ethiopia a biased referee since Addis Ababa has a material interest in the offending Berbera project. Also Ethiopia is one of only three countries – along with Djibouti and Turkey – to have opened consulates in Hargeisa, Somaliland’s main city.
Conversely, though, Abiy would probably not want to see a peaceful Somaliland weakened by Mogadishu. Ethiopia shares a border with Somaliland that is almost as long as that with Somalia, and a strong Somaliland provides a buffer for Ethiopia against al-Shabaab. So Abiy is walking a delicate tightrope on this issue, it seems.
There is also a wider dimension to the Somali-Somaliland standoff. Middle East powers are pursuing proxy rivalries in the Horn, with the UAE backing Somaliland in part to counter Turkey and Qatar’s courtship of Somalia.
Somaliland will likely have to settle for de facto, not de jure, independence for a long while
What the secretive Somali-Somaliland negotiations to which Swan referred might produce is hard to envision. With Somaliland demanding complete independence and Somalia demanding complete unification, the theoretical compromise would be incorporation with a high degree of autonomy within what is already a federal Somali state. But it’s difficult to see Somaliland agreeing to that, and certainly not while Somalia remains locked in its bloody, existential struggle with al-Shabaab and protracted conflicts with federal states.
Ironically in his report, Swan urged that the commitment to dialogue and cooperation exhibited by Somalia and Somaliland should be extended to relations between the Somali federal government in Mogadishu and the federal member states. That was a reminder that some of these states are just about as ‘independent’ in practice as Somaliland. Swan noted with regret that ‘it has been more than a year since the President and all Federal Member State leaders have met.’
So one might think Farmaajo would want to get his own house in order before considering adding another fractious member to the family. On the other hand, despite putting more solid facts on the ground, Somaliland looks as though it will have to settle for de facto, not de jure, independence – at least for a long while.
Peter Fabricius, ISS Consultant
Copyright Institute for Security Studies. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com)., source News Service English
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