Ciidamada kala duwan ee Somaliland hawlo wax ku ool ah ayey u hayaan guud ahaan qaranka Somaliland. Waxaa looga baahan yahay Siyaasiinta,Ganacsatada,dadweynaha in la isku kaashado sidii ciidamada gacan loogu siin lahaa hawlahaa ay inoo hayaan,waa in kor loo qaadaa noloshooda,aqoontooda, guriyo qiimo jaban loo dhisaa. Waynu og nahay duruufaha adag ee ku hareereysan,balse waxay ku amaanan yihiin kaalinta ay ka geystaan nabadgelyada,ilaalinta dhaqaalaha,difaaca qaranimada.hogaanka.org waxa uu hambalyo u dirayaa ciidamada booliska Somaaliland oo ku guuleystey in gacanta ku dhigaan lacag ka badan hal milyan oo dollar fake ah,si loogu dhaco hantidada dadka reer Somaliland khalkhalna lagu geliyo nidaamka maliyadeed ee shacabka iyo qaranba. Dadka iyo dawlada Somalilandba waxaa la gudboon in isha ku hayaan hagardaamooyinka loo soo maleegayo.
- Maxamed Cabdullaahi Dhaaley
- Weriye madaxbannaan
22 Oktoobar 2020
Seynab Xaaji Cali Baxsan: Astaan halgan, aasaas faneed iyo ilays 60 sano ka badan ifinayay masraxa heesaha Soomaalida ayaa ku geeriyootay Muqdisho!
Warbixintan oo uu qorey Maxamed Cabdullaahi Dhaaleey oo ah weriye madaxbannaan wuxuu ku eegayaa waayihii faneed ee Saynab Xaaji Cali Baxsan iyo wixii ay saluugeysay burburkii ka dib.
Waa tuma Baxsan?
Sannadkii 1935 ayay ku dhalatay deegaanka Baabuli ee dhulkii Soomaaliyeed ee loo yaqaannay Hawdka, oo hadda loo garanayo Deegaanka Soomaalida Itoobiya.
Guduudo Carwo oo ahayd gabadhii u horreysay ee idaacad ka heesta ayey isku sannad dhasheen , markii dambena ay saaxibbo noqdeen waxayna magaalada Addis Abab ku kulmeen 1952.
Dad ka qaybgalay aaska Baxsan, oo ay ehelkeeda iyo qaar bahda fanka ka mida ku jiraan, waxa ay saluugeen sagootintii loo sameeyay meydka marxuumadda, waxaana dowladda iyo dadka Soomaaliyeed ee ay lixdanka sano dartood u soo halgamaysa lagu dhaliilay in aanay Baxsan guddoonsiin maamuskii ay mudnayd oo ahaa in aas ballaaran loo sameeyo.
Mar la weydiiyay sida qiimihii dadku isu hayeen uu isu badalay, way qososhay waxayna tiri: “Fan iska daa, qof qofka kale qiimeynayaa maba jiro. Anigu ma arag, qof qiimeynaya qof kale”.
Sannadkii 2016-kii, wareysi ay siisay weriye Cumar Seerbiya waxay ku tiri: “Qiimo ma arag! dadku wuu is wada jeclaa, waa la is wada qiimeyn jiray. Darajo lahow ama ha lahaanin. Waa la isa soo dhoweyn jiray. Hadda labadii istaqaanaba way kala jeedaan. Cudur baa ku dhacay Soomaaliyee, caafimaad Alle ha siiyo!”
Magaceedu waa Saynab Xaaji Cali Siigaale. Si la mida ah gabdhihii Soomaaliyeed ee xilligeeda fanka soo galay ayay u lahayd koofaar magaceeda ku sidkan oo ahayd Baxsan.
Magaca Baxsan waxa u bixisay Shamis Abuukar, Guduudo Carwo. Saaxiibtinimada ka dhaxaysay awgeed, Baxsan sannadkasta booqan jirtay Guduudo oo dhawr iyo labaatan sanno ku xanuusnayd Hargeysa.
Xilli uu fanka miyuusigga watay ee Soomaalidu uu soo shaac-baxayay, dhif iyo dhaqan aanay dadku la qabsan ahaydna in ay gabdhuhu heesaan, ayey Baxsan ku soo biirtay heesaha. Xilligaas waxay haweenka ka baqi jireen in faquuq ay la kulmaan. Waxay ahayd wakhti inta badan heesaha cod ahaan loo duubi jiray oo muuqaallada la daawado aanan aad loo aqoonin.
Dumarkii heesay waxaa Baxsan ka horeeyay Guduudo Carwo iyo Khadiijo Cabdullaahi Dalays, waxaana la qiyaasayaa in gabadhii seddaxaad ee heesta ay ahayd.
Waxa ay Saynab Xaaji Cali Siigaale hanaqaadkeediiba ku indhafuratay dhulkii ay ku noolayd oo uu gummeystihii Ingiriisku ku daray boqortooyadii Xabashida.
Guuxa xornimadoonku waxa uu beryahaas si xooggan u gilgilayay dhammaan dhulalkii Soomaaliyeed ee uu gummeystuhu kala qaybsaday. Si gaar ah, deegaannadii ay u bidhaamaysay rajada madaxbannaanida ayaa noqday meelaha ay soo tiigsadaan qaar badan oo ka mida dhallinyaradii deegaannada kale joogtay ee hiyikacday, una hammuunqabtay in ay mar uun arkaan dal iyo dowlad ay ku abtirsadaan.
Saynab-baxsan ayaa ka mid ahayd jiilalkii berigaas ka soo tallaabay diillintii xuduudda ee lagu kala dhantaallay dhulka Soomaaliyeed, iyada oo soo gaartay goballada Waqooyi ee uu Ingiriisku ka talinayay.
Markii ay dhalatay dowladdii Soomaaliyeed ee ay ku midoobeen labadii gobal ee Waqooyi iyo Koofur, waxa ay Saynab ka mid noqotay ciidamadii Xoogga Dalka.
Soo-ifbaxa iyo saanqaadka fankeeduna waxa uu intiisa badan xiriir la lahaa ciidamada. Ruwaayaddii ugu horreysay ee ay Baxsan ka qaybgasho waxaa lagu magacaabi jiray Alla Aamin Ma Iisho, waxaana curiyay abwaan Axmed Saleebaan Bidde. Hees ay caan ku ahayd oo ruwaayaddaas ku jirtayna waxaa erayadeeda ka mid ahaa:
Dhowr gu’yaal baad guud dabnayd e
Yaad gaboobine guursa baan laa
Guri samaysaan talo ku goostee
Sow tan gees kale iila guurtay
Sida la ii galay, garawsan maayee
Geeri doortaye, maant aan go’o
Dhacdooyinka ay keydadka taariikheed ee ummadda Soomaalida ku gashay Baxsan waxaa ka mid ah, ka-qaybgalkeedii dagaalkii ugu horreeyay ee dhex mara Itoobiya iyo dowladdii Soomaalida, sannadkii 1964, markaas oo ay askartii Soomaaliyeed ee jiidda dagaalka jilbaha ku aastay tamar iyo taagba ka helayeen codkeedii macaanaa oo ay ku qaadeysay heeso ay ku guubaabinaysay kuna geessinimo-gelinaysay askartii dagaallamaysay.
Heesaha caanka ah ee illaa iyo maanta wax u dhigma oo ciidan Soomaaliyeed lagu dhiirrigeliyo aanan la helin waxaa ka mid ahaa heesta uu miraheeda curiyay abwaan Cismaan Aadan Askari ee dhahaysa:
Ee gaalku sameystay
Inaan ka gudbaayo
Guul lagu reeyo guuleysta
Waxaa Baxsan lagu xasuustaa in ay ka mid ahayd geesiyaashii ay dowladdii Soomaalidu billadaha ku guuddoonsisay kaalintii ay ka qaateen dagaalkii ugu horreeyay ee Soomaaliya ay la gashay Itoobiya.
Waxaana xusid mudan in billadaha ay heshay ay noqdeen qayb ka mida dhaxalkii xusuuseed ee ay ka reebatay waayaheedii faneed iyo midkeedii halgan ee nus qarniga ka badan soo taxnaa, kaas oo illaa ay ka geeriyootay ahaa mid aan laga waayin hareeraheeda iyo halkii ay ku noolayd.
Heesihii kale ee gobannimodoonka la xiriiray oo ay Baxsan ku caan-baxday waxaa ka mid ahaa tan ay dad badan u yaqaanaan Sabaalo, oo ay iyada iyo Cali Diiriye (Cali-gaab) wada qaadi jireen, Alle ha u naxariisto e. Heestaas oo uu erayadeeda sameeyay Alle ha u naxariistee Maxamuud Cabdillaahi Ciise Singub waxaa ka mid ahaa:
Dantu seeto weeyoo
Ninna kama siqaayoo
Sababtaa ma dhaaftide
Waan ku soo salaamiyo
Sidee tahayda guudnimo
Cudur kaama saartee
Silic laguma waaroo
Lagu siin ma waydide
Waa saaddambiyo shalay
Saacad kala wareegtee
La I siiyay xalay baan
Si’ ay noqon Allaa oge
Samir aan lahaano
Kaalintii faneed ee Baxsan, in kasta oo ay ahayd mid ballaaran oo baaxad weyn, haddana riwaayadihii caanka ahayd ee ay ka qaybgashay waxaa ugu caansanaa; Alle Aamin Ma Iisho oo uu Axmed Saleebaan Bidde allifay; Waraf iyo Shimbiro War Isuma Hayaan oo uu Cismaan Aadan Askari curiyay; Gar cadaawo iyo Caashaq oo uu Yuusuf Aadan Allaale curiyay iyo ruwaayaddii mar dambe filmika loo beddelay ee Cilmi iyo Caado oo uu Yuusuf Aadan Allaale allifay.
Saynab Xaaji Cali waxa ay tixgelin gaar ah ku lahayd fanka qaybtiisa waddaniga oo aad loogu yaqaannay.
Sida ay ku xustay wareysi barta Youtube-ka ku jira oo 2016 uu Xamar kula yeeshay weriye Cumar Seerbiya, qaadista heesaha waddaniyadda waxa ay ahayd mid ay Baxsan iyadu si gaar ah u jeclayd una dooratay.
Waxaase jira heeso dhowr ah oo jacayl ah oo ay ku caan ahayd, sida heeska ‘Cirradiyo Jacaylka’ oo uu erayadiida sameeyay abwaan Maxamuud Cabdullahi Ciise Singub, taas oo ay sheegtay in ay iyadu ka codsatay abwaanka mar ay la tacaalaysay jacayl da’ weyni ku halleelay.
- Dalays ‘ileyskii’ fanka Soomaaliyeed oo ifka ka hoyatay
- Guduudo Carwo oo ku geeriyootay Hargeysa
- Siduu ahaa dareenka dadkii u soo joogay habeenkii xorriyadda 60 sano ka hor
Heesaha kale ee ay Baxsan qaadday oo kuwa aan kor ku soo xusnay aan ahayn waxaan ka mida:
1. Wax saar ama [Nin weyn waa og yahay wedkii dilayo] oo ay isla qaadaan Maxamed Yuusuf Cabdi (ahun) kuna jirtay ruwaayaddii Alle Aamin Ma Iisho ee uu curiyay Axmed Saleebaan Bidde
2. Toogo [waa tabaala adduun e, rabbi hay nala tiirsho] oo uu sidoo kale la qaado Maxamed Yuusuf Cabdi isla ruwaayadda horena ku jirtay
3. Dorraato miyaad illowday, oo uu la qaado Axmed Cali Cigaal, kuna jirtay riwaayaddii Dhedo Roob noqon wayday oo uu Cabdullaahi Diiriye Sooraan allifay
4. Kaftankuna inoo furan oo uu isla Cigaal la qaado kuna jirtay isla ruwaayadda Dhedo Roob Noqon weyday
5. Kibirka Waa lagu duma oo ay Cigaal wada qaadaan kuna jirtay isla ruwaayadda hore
6. Diiday Ha I Maqashiin oo ay wada qaadaan Xasan Aadan Samatar, kuna jirtay ruwaayaddii Gar Cadaawe iyo Caashaq oo uu allifay abwaan Yuusuf Aadan Allaale
7. Ma heshiin karayn, oo ay wada qaadaan isla Xasan Aadan Samatar, kuna jirtay isla ruwaayadda hore ee abwaan Yuusuf Allaale
6. Eebbow Mahaddaa (Niya udug leh. Sida ubaxa. Alleylehe helnee. Eebbow mahaddaa) iyo heeso kale
Ilaahay ha u naxariisto e, Saynab Xaaji Cali Baxsan oo dadka fanyaqaanka ah ay aaminsan yihiin inay ka mid ahayd gabdihii ugu horreeyay ee ku soo biira fan-masraxeedka Soomaalida, ayaa Talaadii, 20-ka Oktoober 2020, lagu aasay magaalada Muqdisho oo ay maalin ka hor ku dhimatay.
Waxaana ay geerideedu ifka ka gelbisay mid ka mida hooballadii ugu da’da weynaa ee ifka ku sii dambeeyay, xilli ay inta badan hooballadii waaweynaa ee fanka Soomaalidu ay dunida isaga carraabeen.
Sidoo kale, geerida Baxsan waxa ay kordhisay tirada fannaaniintii hore ee sannadkaan gudihiisa geeriyooday, kuwaas oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Maxamuud Ismaaciil Xudeydi, Cabdi Tahaliil Warsame, Cumar Cabdule Shoolli iyo Daa’uud Cali Masxaf.
La yaabkuse waxa uu yahay in Baxsan, iyada oo nool ay saluugtay qiimo-tirka ay la kulmaan dadka waxgalka ah ee Soomaaliya.
*Waxaa qoray Maxamed Cabdullaahi Dhaaleey oo wax ka qora arrimaha fanka oo ku sugan Britain
Source :BBC Somali
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Dr. Maxamuud waa nin qiimo ku leh Somaliland iyo Jabuutiba waa nin wax weyn ka bedelidoona Golaha wakiilada Somaliland reer Berbera waxaa ay u tahay sharaf weyn in Maxamuud uu Berbera iska soo Sharaxo sidaa darteed reer Berbera waxaa la gudboon iney Cod aan reer qudha ahayn siiyaan waa muwaadin horumarka iyo aqoontaba ku kaabidoona Somaliland iyo Reer berberaba ugu dambeyntii Hogaanka.org wuxuu u hambaleenayaa Dr. Maxamuud waxaanu u rajeynaynaa in uu Allah (swt) ku guuleysiiyo hankiisa AAmiin Yaa Allah.
Qayb ka mid hawlaha balaadhan ee uu rabo Dr, Maxamuud inuu wax kala qabto bulshada gobolka saaxil gaar ahaan guud ahaana Somaliland oo dhan waxaa ka mid ah:
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Allah ha u Naxariistee dadkii ay duqeeyeen Diyaaradii Ciidamadii Qalabka Sidey ee Somaaliya Waxaa ka mid ahaa hooyaday Cosob naxariistii Jano Allah ha siiyee gacan ka xaqdaran , masuuliin naxariis laawadayaal ah amrayeen ayaa musuul ka ahaa Alle ayaa maxkamdiisa Cadaalada badan soo taagidoona gacan ku dhiiglayaashii xasuuqay hooyadey iyo shacabkii faraha badnaa ee sida xaqdarada ah lagu xasuuqay Hargeysa,Berbera,Burco, Gabiley ,Ceerigaabo iyo meelo badan oo kale.
Mudane Maxamed Iimaan Aqoon uma lihi balse hadalkiisu waa mid mudan inaanu ku suxno bogayagan.
Waxaa aan Madaxweyne Muuse Biixi kula talinaynaa in uu wax ka bedelo siyaasadiisa arimaha debeda, nabadgelya iyo arimaha technologyadaba dhiso qaran leh aqoon,sinaan,wadatashe,dimoqraadiyad dadka aqoonta leh ee reer somaliland aqoontooda ka faa’iideysto,shuruucda dalka lagu dhaqmo dib u habeyn lagu sameeyo dhaqaalaha,sharciyada iyo dhismaha qarankaba dadka daacada ah ee wadaniyiinta ah aqoonta lehna laga faa’iideysto xitaa waxaa la helayaa aqoonyahano iskaa wax u qabso dalkooda uga faa’iideynaya aqoontooda sida kuwa hawlgabka ah ee leh waayo aragnimada iyo aqoonta sare, ama kuwa kale ee u diyaarka ah dhismaha qarankooda.
Xisbiyada Siyaasadu ee Somaliland waa kuwo sharci ah dimoqraadiya tilmaami kara dayaca kala duwan iyo dhaliilaha ka jira maamulka iyo habsimada hawlaha qaranka guud ahaan iyo gaar ahaanba waxaana waajib ku ah haydaha amaanku iney la shaqeeyaan cid kasta oo hawsheeda gudanaya gacana ku siiyaan hadii hadalkaasi run yahay waa arin u baahan in dawladu tabaabo ka qaado cid kasta oo ku gabool fasha sharciga iyo kala dambeynta, ereyada waan ku dilayaa,waan ku xidhayaa waa ereyo aad u ilita balse leh miisaankooda sharci iyo anshax hadaba xisbiyada mucaaridka ah waxaa la gudboon iney shaqadooda qabsadaan balse iyagana waxaa ka muuqda in aaney si habsami ah u qabsaneynin shaqadooda mucaaridnimo oo xanuun kursi uun uu hayo iyagaana waxaa haboon in xildhibaanadooda ugu jiri golaha deegaanka la xisaabtamaan waayo maayirkada oo qudh ahi ma maamulaahan degmooyinka balse waxaa jira golayaal deegaan oo ka kooban xisbiyada oo dhan maxaa diidaya inta ay u yeedhaan xildhibaanada ka soo baxay xisbiyadooda in ay kula xisaabtamaan shaqada iyo siyaasada xisbiyadooda ee golayaasha dhexdooda.
Dr. Amina Waxaanu u rajeneynaa maalgelinteeda in Allah(swt) u barakeeyo waxaanu kale oo ku buurinaynaa in ay maalgelin balaadhana ku sameyso Jamhuuriyada Somaliland oo ah wadan dihin oo horumarkiisu soo ifayo mustaqbalka dhow waa hadii dadkiisu rabaan sidaasi.
Madaxweyne muusow waxaa lagaa rabaa in aad dadkaaga iyo dalkaaga u horseetid horumar,barwaaqo,dimoqraadiyad ,sinaan iyo cadaalad waari meysid war wanaagsani ha kaa hadho waad aragtaa sida lagugu soo dhaweenayo gobol kasta oo somaliland ah hadaba waa in aad adsiguna abaalka shacbigaaga ka dhigtaa mid ay kugu xusaan waxqabad iyo horumar dalka ka ilaalisaa dayaca dadka u sameysaa caafimaad,waxbarasho jidad wanaagsan shaqo abuur iyo horumar lagu gaadho citiraaf nabad iyo barwaaqo loo siman yahay.
Waxaanu eegi doonaa markaad hargeysa ku soo noqoto hadii Allah idmo waxaa aad isbedel sameyso taas ayaa saldhig u noqondoonta ayahaaga siyaasadeed ee mustaqbalka …………..Soo noqo adoo nabada. Hargeysa jidadkeeda qoshe qaran u samee caasimadu way aradan tahaye dalna horumarkiisa waxaa laga eegaa caasamadiisa.
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This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum. Author: Richard Edelman, President, Edelman & Julie Louise Gerberding, Executive Vice President & Chief Patient Officer, MSD Vaccine hesitancy poses a major threat to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Building and sustaining public trust and confidence in immunization systems […]Businesses have a role to play in building vaccine trust. Here’s why — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
Hargeysi waa magaalo aad u quruxbadan waana Caasimada Somaliland balse waxay ka cabaneysaa dayac weyn oo ka muuqda jid la’aan qorsho xumo, Nadaafada magaalada oo la dayacay arimo badan oo kale.
Hargeysi waxay tidhi :
a) Waxaan hoy u ahay dad gaadhaya in kabadan hal milyan
b) Waxaa aan xarun u ahay Saddexda Xisbi ee qaran ee Somaliland (Kulmiye,UCID iyo Wadani) balse dayacaygu uma muuqdo
c) Waxaa aan hooy u ahay Madaxweynahayashii Somaliland Soo marey ilaa kan maanta balse mid dayacayga ka naxayaa ma arag
d) Waxaa sidoo kale oo hooy u ahay Dhamaan Labada Gole ee Guurtida iyo Wakiilada wax garawsho ah kama hayo
e) Waxaa hooy u ahay ganacsadayaasha waaweyn ee Somaliland balse igama naxaan daryeelna kama helo.
Waxaa aan maqlayaa doorashooyinka deegaanka ee hargeysa iyo dalka oo dhan waxaan ku soo dhaweynayaa boholaha iyo godadka dhaadheer ee u eeg mid laga qotey macdan ku aasneyd, burburka wadooyinka,qorsho xumada tiirarka laydhka, qashinka iyo dhiiqada marka roobku da’o.
Hargeysi waa magaalo aad u wanaagsan balse nasiib daro may helin dadkii daryeelilahaa waana mid u muuqata qof walba manaha dacaayad,been in hargeysi dayacan tahay weliba waxaa aanu ka xishooney in aanu soo bandhigo muuqaalo dhab ah oo aad yaxyaxeesid marka aad aragto. Balse waxaa aanu eegidoonaa fariintan iney keento isbedel cida masuuliyadeeda leh.
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Sigasho: Youtube Xulasho.com
TACSI KU SOCOTA EHELKA,QARABADA ,AXSAABTII IYO UMADA SOMALILAND EE UU KABAXAY MARXUUN CALI KHALIIF GALEYR
Maamulka hogaanka.org wuxuu tacsi u dirayaa dhamaanba ehelkii,qarabadii iyo Umada reer Somaliland Geerida lama filaanka ah ee ku timi Marxuum Cali Khaliif Galeyr oo maalintii Shaley la sheegay inuu ku geeriyoodey magaalada Jigjiga sida lagu baahiyey mareegaha somalida sidaa awgeed Marxuunka waxaan Allah (swt) uga baryanaa inuu naxariistii Jano geeyo dhamaanteena Samir iyo IImaan inaga siiyo Aamiin Yaa Allah.
Waxaa Ka codsanlahayn Ehelka Marxuumka In lagu aaso Magaalooyinka Somaliland(Sida Hargeysa,Burco ama Laascaanood) ama Magaalada Jigjiga Waa hadii ay surtagal tahay waayo wuxuu u dhashay Jamhuuriyada Somaliland waxaanu ka mid ahaa Siyaasinta iyo Aqoonyahanada dalkaas.
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Doorashada Federalka Somaliya ee soosocotaa Waxay u sansan eegtahay Afgembigii Kacaankii Siyaad bare 21 Okt 1969
Maxaa Ka jira in uu Farmaajo diyaarsanayo inuu xeelado kala duwan oo mudo badan taariikhdu xusidoontu inuu maagan yahay sidii uu Somaliya ugu soo celinlahaa xukunkii adeerkii Maxamed Siyaad?
Warbixintaa kore ka soo xigtey Youtube ka balse waa suurtowdaa in ay xaqiiqo noqoto sabatoo ah 45 kursi ee uu muqdisho lagu dooranayo ee somaliland lagu aslayo meel buu dhigtey oo gacantiisa ayey ku jiraan oo si xeeladeysan, Gedo wuxuu geestey ciidamo iyo kuraasi lagu soo doorto xildhibaano, galmud waa taa la sheegayo in uu ciidamo geeyestey,Jawhar ku dar taasi waxay ku tusaysaa in uu u tabaabusheysanayo inqilaab aan dhiig ku daadan sidii adeerkii balse dhiig badan daadindoono.
Caqli xumada Somalida waxaad ku garan kartaa 45 Somaliland lagu magacaabey caruurta ayaa garaneysa in tiro buuxsi uun tahay ee aaney Somaliland ay matalayaan,ama wax ka tarayaan aaney jirin kuwii horeba xitaa may iman mana iman karaan somaliland balse tirada doorashada madaxweynaha ayuun baa lagu buuxsadaa.
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Re-building resilient education systems: two lessons on the privatisation of education and one solution emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic — World Education Blog
It is well-known that the disruptions to education due to COVID-19 are enormous. In order to understand the full effects of the pandemic, members of the Privatisation Education and Human Rights Consortium, an informal network of national, regional and global organisations and individuals who collaborate to analyse and respond to the challenges posed by the […]Re-building resilient education systems: two lessons on the privatisation of education and one solution emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic — World Education Blog
Technology: The new face of Medicine — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
This article was exclusively written for The European Sting by Mr. Prateek Jain a medical undergraduate student at AIIMS Rishikesh India. He is affiliated to the International Federation of Medical Students Associations (IFMSA), cordial partner of The Sting. The opinions expressed in this piece belong strictly to the writer and do not necessarily reflect IFMSA’s view on […]Technology: The new face of Medicine — The European Sting – Critical News & Insights on European Politics, Economy, Foreign Affairs, Business & Technology – europeansting.com
Though unrecognised by the international community, this self-declared state in the Horn of Africa has its own flag, parliament, currency and national identity. What has to happen before its status changes? By Joshua Keating
When you are in Somaliland, there is never any question that you are in a real country. After all, the place has all the trappings of countryhood. When I arrived at the airport, a customs officer in a Somaliland uniform checked my Somaliland visa, issued by the Somaliland consulate in Washington DC. At the airport, there was a Somaliland flag. During my visit, I paid Somaliland shillings to drivers of cabs with Somaliland plates who took me to the offices of ministers of the Somaliland government.
But, according to the US Department of State, the United Nations, the African Union and every other government on Earth, I was not in Somaliland, a poor but stable and mostly functional country on the Horn of Africa. I was in Somalia.
Even among unrecognised states, Somaliland is a special case – it is both completely independent and politically entirely isolated. Unlike South Sudan before its independence, Somaliland’s claim for statehood is based not on a redrawing of colonial borders, but an attempt to re-establish them. Unlike Taiwan, it is shackled not to a richer, more powerful country, but a poorer, weaker one. Unlike Palestine, its quest for independence is not a popular cause for activists around the world.
The journalist Graeme Wood has described places such as Somaliland as the “limbo world”: entities that “start by acting like real countries, and then hope to become them”. What separates “real” from “self-proclaimed” countries is simply the recognition of other countries. There’s no ultimate legal authority in international relations that decides what is or isn’t a real country, and differences of opinion on that question are common. What separates the Somalilands of the world from, say, Sweden is that Sweden is recognised by its peers.
Statehood may be a legal concept, but achieving it is an entirely political process. To the degree that foreign officials acknowledge Somaliland at all, they are generally sympathetic to its history and admiring of its recent accomplishments. Somaliland’s main obstacle is not the world’s animosity, but its indifference. Its current predicament answers the question: what would happen if you created a new country and no one noticed?
Somaliland is pretty easy to get to. There are regular flights to the capital, Hargeisa, from Dubai and Addis Ababa. The city – a scruffy, sprawling town of cinderblock houses and potholed roads – feels coated in a fine film of desert dust. It’s usually extraordinarily dry, although periodic violent downpours in the rainy season leave the mostly unpaved streets damp and soggy. Camels are the traditional livelihood, food source and currency of Somali herders, and even in the big city, it’s not unusual to see them loping through busy downtown traffic. Food stalls crank out steaming, heaping plates of chewy camel meat (not bad) and thick, frothy camel milk (nauseating – to me, anyway).https://interactive.guim.co.uk/uploader/embed/2018/07/somaliland/giv-3902cSckF20JEQAn/Advertisement
From other stalls, money-changers dispense grimy, faded bricks of shilling banknotes held together by rubber bands. When I was visiting, the shilling was trading at about 7,000 to the US dollar – although given that you can’t exchange Somaliland shillings anywhere outside Somaliland, I don’t exactly understand how this exchange rate is set. When paying for anything in a store with shillings, unless you know what you’re doing, it’s generally best to just hand over one of these bricks to the clerk and let him take out what he needs. Nowadays, most people are more likely to pay for basic goods and services by transferring cellphone credit.
Try to book a hotel in Somaliland online from the US and you are likely to be referred to a travel advisory stating: “The US Department of State warns US citizens to avoid travel to Somalia because of continuous threats by the al-Qaida affiliated terrorist group, al-Shabaab.” But once you’re there, you quickly realise that such warnings are unnecessary. Hargeisa is one of the safest large cities in Africa, and, aside from the pollution and the traffic, there’s not too much to be concerned about when you’re walking around, although foreigners travelling outside the capital have been required to hire an armed guard since the killing of four foreign aid workers by bandits in 2004. There’s been almost no terrorist activity in Somaliland since 2008, when suicide bombers attacked the presidential palace and Ethiopian consulate. In contrast to the south, there is no pirate activity along Somaliland’s shores.
Hargeisa’s main work of public art is a war memorial consisting of a stubby Mig fighter plane – a real one – shot down in 1988 and now mounted on a pedestal along the city’s main thoroughfare. Hargeisans will tell you, with some ironic pride, that their city is one of the few places in the world that was bombed by planes that took off from that same city. The event is part of a long chain of events, most of them tragic, leading up to the country’s strange current predicament.
As the names of their countries suggest, there’s little ethnic or linguistic difference between the people of Somalia and Somaliland. The entity that today calls itself the Republic of Somaliland owes its existence to two main factors: its proximity to Yemen and its abundance of sheep. In the late 19th century, Britain (with the support of Italy) and France (with the support of Russia) were locked in a struggle for control of the Nile. As a means of both countering French influence and ensuring a regular supply of mutton for its garrison at the Yemeni port city of Aden, Britain signed a series of agreements with tribes in northern Somalia.Advertisement
In the words of the historian Ioan Lewis, “in relation to its size and significance” Somaliland was “one of Britain’s least rewarding possessions”. Yet there’s a good case to be made that its marginal status as a colony benefited the country in the long run. Whereas Somaliland had been considered a backwater by the British, and therefore left mostly to govern itself through the existing clan structure, Italy considered Somalia an integral part of its short-lived ambitions to build a north African empire that also included modern-day Libya and parts of Egypt.
It shouldn’t be surprising that today the territory where the colonising power had more ambitious state-building goals is the more unstable. There is evidence from studies of regions of India and other parts of Africa to support the notion that postcolonial countries where colonisers had a lighter touch turned out better in the long term.
As Somalilanders will often remind you, it was, in the past, an independent country, fully recognised by the international community, including the UN. But this halcyon period lasted less than a week. On 26 June 1960, the former Protectorate of Somaliland became fully independent from British rule, its independence recognised by 35 countries around the world, including the US. The next day, its new legislature passed a law approving a union with the south. On 1 July, Somalia became independent from Italy, and the two were joined together. It is a decision Somaliland has regretted almost ever since.
Difficulties emerged almost immediately, and just a year after independence, voters in the north rejected a new constitution. The marriage was off to a rocky start. Things would go from bad to worse in 1969 when an officers’ coup brought a general named Siad Barre to power.
The tensions within Somaliland society escalated as Barre’s long reign continued. Since independence, Somalia and Somaliland’s leaders have tended to favour members of their own clans and subclans with patronage. There are six main Somali clans, with dozens of subclans. The vast majority of those living in what is now Somaliland come from various branches of the Isaaq clan. The south is more heterogeneous. Barre may have espoused a doctrine of “scientific socialism”, a fusion of terrible governance ideas imported from China, North Korea and Nasserite Egypt, but he was not above ethnic nationalism, privileging his own Darod clan, which added to the resentment of the northern Isaaqs.Advertisement
During the 1980s, with support for Barre and his harsh military regime eroding, a primarily Isaaq northern rebel group known (somewhat misleadingly), as the Somali National Movement (SNM) emerged to challenge rule from Mogadishu. The crackdowns that followed simply added to the perception that the north was a region under occupation. This culminated in an all-out civil war between the SNM and the central government in the late 80s, during which thousands were killed and millions fled.
On 18 May 1991, the SNM proclaimed that the region was re-establishing its independence, severing its ties to the south, and would now be known as the Republic of Somaliland. The world, for the most part, shrugged. The slow and steady process of state formation in the north would be almost entirely overshadowed in the international media by the chaos engulfing the south, particularly after an international intervention two years later led to the infamous “Black Hawk down” incident and the killing of 19 American troops during the battle of Mogadishu.
So why has Somaliland been more successful and stable than its southern neighbour, even with virtually no assistance from the international community? The fact that is is largely populated by only one clan has helped it avoid tribal conflicts, unlike some other countries in the region. Most Somalilanders also point to the role of clan elders. In addition to a president and a traditional elected parliament, Somaliland has an unelected upper house of elders, somewhat similar to Britain’s House of Lords, which has a consultative role on certain legislation and is entrusted with settling disputes between the country’s subclans. “It’s the elders who really made this peace,” Mohamed Omar Hagi, a UK-based Somali activist, told me.
Somaliland has also been lucky to benefit from the leadership of a few individuals, most notably the country’s most prominent global advocate, Edna Adan. The most famous person in the country, she is generally just referred to in Somaliland as Edna. “We don’t have a George Clooney,” one local journalist told me, referring to the Hollywood star’s advocacy on behalf of South Sudan’s independence. “All we’ve got is Edna.”
When I met Adan at the maternity hospital and midwifery school she runs in Hargeisa, which everyone just calls “Edna hospital”, she handed me her business card, which on the back features the caption “Where is Somaliland?” with an arrow pointing to the country’s location on a map of the Horn of Africa. Job one for Adan, who has travelled throughout the world, is simply telling people what and where her country is. “I can’t get anyone to come here,” she sighs. “The teachers and doctors cannot come to us because their governments tell them not to. I don’t know how you slipped through the net.”
Adan’s office was decorated with photos of dignitaries she has met, from Hillary Clinton to Kofi Annan. The centrepiece was a striking photo of a very young Edna with her late husband, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, at the White House with Lyndon B Johnson in 1968, when Egal was prime minister of Somalia.
Adan was Somalia’s first qualified nurse-midwife, and the first Somali woman to drive. She spent years as a UN and WHO official before returning to Somaliland to build the hospital with her own savings; for all its limitations on personnel and equipment, it is one of the premier facilities in the Horn of Africa. She’s been called the Muslim Mother Teresa for her work in promoting women’s health and campaigning against female genital mutilation. She also served for several years as Somaliland’s foreign minister, continuing to deliver babies while on the job.
Although her political activities receive less attention than her public health work, Adan is also a tireless advocate for Somaliland’s independence. “For 25 years I’ve been waiting for the world to see how stable, peaceful and governable we are,” she told me, decrying what she called the “world conspiracy against Somaliland’s recognition”. Adan sees Somaliland’s unrecognised status as the main reason for its lack of economic progress over the past quarter-century.
Non-recognition by western powers is having an impact on the status of women as well, Adan argued, saying that western countries’ lack of engagement was opening the door to the influence of fundamentalists from the Gulf. She pointed to an old photo of herself as first lady in a chic cocktail dress: “You see my pictures! We never used to cover ourselves from head to toe,” she said. “We had necks, we had hair, we were people. Others are getting into Somaliland faster than the west. And if that keeps on like this, heaven help us.”
She echoed a theme I heard a lot in Somaliland, that the country is a rare beacon of stability in a very dangerous region. Somaliland is indeed stable by local standards, but it’s not exactly prospering. Reliable statistics are hard to come by, but, in 2012, the World Bank estimated its GDP per capita at just $348 (£267), which would make it the fourth-poorest country in the world. Its main industry is livestock export, which accounts for about 70% of jobs. Its main customers are in the Middle East, and business picks up during the annual hajj in Mecca. With few opportunities at home, it’s not surprising that an estimated 44% of unemployed youth have stated their intention to migrate.
A large number of people are also dependent on $500m per year in remittances from the roughly million-strong Somaliland diaspora living for the most part in Britain, the US, Scandinavia and elsewhere in Africa. This isn’t unusual for developing countries, but officials are understandably worried that this flow of cash from abroad is a finite resource. Most members of the diaspora are refugees who left the country during the violence of the 1980s. Their children are less likely to feel the need to support aunts and uncles they barely know. “These offspring are now basically Americans or British or French or whatever,” energy minister Hussein Abdi Dualeh told me. “They don’t have the same attachment to the country.”
With remittances likely to dry up in the coming years, and livestock an unreliable resource, the government is looking for other sources of investment, but Somaliland is a place with an image problem. “The name always scares people,” said Dualeh. “Anything that starts with ‘Somali’, no matter how it ends, is a red flag for a lot of people. But companies who are here realise it’s a very benign, very safe environment.”
The twin hopes for the Somali economy are oil exploration – currently being carried out by a handful of hardier energy firms off the coast – and a plan by Dubai Ports World to develop the Red Sea port of Berbera, which could conceivably be an alternative means of bringing goods by sea into landlocked Ethiopia. But it’s hard to imagine that plan taking off without a serious improvement in roads and infrastructure, and that probably requires international investment.
And for that in turn, once again, it would be helpful for other countries to know that Somaliland exists, and isn’t the same country as Somalia.
One highly unusual feature of Somaliland’s situation is that it’s not actually looking to challenge the much-maligned borders drawn by Europeans across the African continent – it’s looking to restore them. “The international community said we seceded from Somalia. We did not. We already had our own nation,” said Mohammed Ahmed Mohamoud, AKA Barwani, a civil society activist and director of the Somaliland Non-State Actors Forum. “Our borders were established through an agreement between the Italian government and the British,” said foreign minister Saad Ali Shire. “It’s an internationally determined boundary.”
Although it’s true that Somaliland voluntarily erased the border with Somalia in 1960, Somalilanders don’t consider that decision irreversible. As Somalilanders often point out, theirs wouldn’t be the first country to back out of a postcolonial merger. Senegal and the Gambia, a narrow strip of a country located completely within Senegal’s territory, were joined together as the confederation of Senegambia from 1982 to 1989. Egypt and Syria were briefly joined together as the United Arab Republic from 1958 until 1961, when Syria seceded. If these countries couldn’t make their marriages work, why, Somalilanders ask, should Somaliland be stuck in a loveless alliance?
These arguments were hard to argue with in Hargeisa. But in the outside world, they’re unlikely to prove persuasive. For Somaliland, the frustrating reality is that the world map is preserved in place less by international law or even custom than by what’s sometimes called “path dependence” – the thousands of small decisions that, over time, lead to the creation of institutions, and that are very hard to unmake without massive disruption. Countries tend to stay the way they are, and people, with some justification, believe it would be awfully difficult and dangerous to change them.
The last major wave of country creation took place in the early 1990sm as the end of the cold war hastened the breakup of the Soviet Union and the explosion of Yugoslavia. Since then, only a handful of new countries have joined the club – and many of them have struggled.
But, as Shire, the foreign minister, points out, Somaliland does exist already, and it is long past time for the international community to recognise that. “Somaliland fulfills all the conditions for an independent state,” he said. “I think everyone sympathises with the Somaliland case. Even when we are not recognised de jure, we are recognised de facto. When I travel, I am treated like a foreign minister. We deal with the UN and the international community as an independent country. We are treated as de facto independent – it is only the de jure recognition of sovereignty [we lack].”
The argument against Somaliland’s independence rests largely on factors beyond the country’s control. Somaliland officials are used to hearing that if their independence were recognised, it would set off a domino effect for nationalist movements, destabilising the continent. If Somaliland were independent, what would stop other regions from trying the same thing?
International organisations such as the African Union and the Arab League are hostile to the idea of recognising further territorial divisions. Countries wary of their own separatist movements don’t want to establish any sort of precedent. The UN, which has invested enormous resources in promoting stability and unity in Somalia as a whole, views Somaliland as a hindrance to those goals rather than any sort of beacon of stability. Somaliland’s neighbour Ethiopia mostly supports it, but given Addis Ababa’s wariness about its own Somali separatists, it likely prefers the status quo – a weak and divided Somalia – rather than a strong independent Somali state on its borders. The two most recent instances of country creation in Africa – autocratic, impoverished Eritrea and anarchic, violent South Sudan – have not bolstered Somaliland’s argument that its recognition would be a boon to regional and global stability.
Western observers, both governmental and non-governmental, have generally been more positive. Noting that Somaliland, unlike most of its neighbours, has had several contested elections and peaceful transfers of power since independence, the US NGO Freedom House classified it as an “emerging democracy”, and it is the only country in its region considered at least “partly free” or higher on the group’s annual rankings.Advertisement
As far back as 2003, the International Crisis Group argued that the choice facing the international community was to “develop pragmatic responses to Somaliland’s demand for self-determination or continue to insist upon the increasingly abstract notion of the unity and territorial integrity of the Somali Republic”. In 2007, a US defence official described Somaliland to the Washington Post as “an entity that works”, and said that in the Pentagon’s view “Somaliland should be independent”.
But even if non-African governments are, on the whole, generally sympathetic to Somaliland, it’s not enough of a priority to upset the status quo. Somalilanders like to joke mischievously that they have been too well behaved. After all, the other countries that have gained recognition in recent years have done so after wars and genocides.
“Being a peaceful, democratic and developing state isn’t helping Somaliland gain international recognition,” said Hagi. “Somaliland is very quiet. It’s a peaceful place. The international community doesn’t really care about a peaceful place. When there is a problem in a country, the international community is always there – Somalia, Iraq, Syria, Libya. When there’s no problem there, there’s no point in coming to build a state.”
Or, as Adan puts it: “At 78, I don’t want to face the possibility that everything I’ve been taught about democracy and human rights is wrong. Maybe I should just go join the Taliban.”
They are joking, of course, but without some major turning point or dramatic shift in global priorities, it’s hard to see Somaliland winning recognition. The world will continue to defend an abstract principle of territorial integrity in the face of the clear will of the people of Somaliland.Advertisement
Recently, there have also been some troubling indications that Somaliland’s much-vaunted peace and stability might be more fragile than it seems. Dozens have been killed in fighting between Somaliland and Puntland – a neighbouring semi-autonomous region of Somalia – as part of a long-running clash over a disputed border region. Monitors have warned that the conflict risks breaking out into open war. The Somaliland government has also been condemned for detaining and harrassing journalists covering the conflict.
For all its serious problems, though, it is hard to argue with Somaliland’s relative success. Perhaps this is the bigotry of low expectations, but whatever negatives you can say about the place, it’s not Somalia. With little help from the outside, Somaliland has had to do an awful lot on its own, and arguably done it better than many of its recognised counterparts.
“In many African countries that have been recognised, they are still struggling,” said Barwani. “So, sometimes we say that maybe being a de facto state is better. Because many recognised states in Africa failed, and they became a one-party system of a dictatorship with no free media and no space for citizen participation. For us, we have so many things. No limitations, no restrictions.”
Looking at the decades of support given by the US to dictators such as Mobutu Sese Seko, or considering the destabilising role of western oil companies in countries such as Nigeria, there’s a case to be made that if that’s what engagement with the outside world means for fragile African states, maybe Somaliland has been better off without it. If, at some point in the future, the world does decide to recognise its independence, bringing with it the attendant investment and diplomatic engagement, Somaliland will be in a stronger and more stable position to handle it. Shire remains optimistic that this day will come. “We’ve waited 25 years already. We don’t mind waiting another 25.”
Adapted from Invisible Countries: Journeys to the Edge of Nationhood by Joshua Keating ispublished by Yale University Press, and available at guardianbookshop.com
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Makulatay Caare in uu Ciidamada Qaran Somaliland ku Soo noqondoono?
Maxay ka Dhigantay in aad darajo aanad gaadhin Sheegato sharciga ciidamada?
Maxayse ka dhigantey in aad Mushahaarkii ciidamadii aad maamulileysay dhacdo?
Calamku Sidee uu u arkaa qof isku dayey in uu inqilaabo oo uu xoog ku qabsado dawlad domuraadiya oo codka dadkeeda lagu soo doortey?
Sidan qabo Caare wuxuu isku furay markhaati in uu ku kacay khiyaamo qaran,dhac iyo dhilal uu geestey intuu duurka ku jirey waxaana aynu eegi doonaa mustaqbalkiisa dambe hadii Allah(swt) ina gaadhsiiyo. Inkasta oo heshiis uu la galey dawlada Somaliland oo arintaasi la dhameeyey hada balse tii uu ka galey umada reer Somaliland guud iyo gaar ahaan dadkii ay waxyeeladu ka soo gaartey dhibaatooyinkii uu abuuray waxa uu u baahan yahay in uu cafis weydiisto Allah na u toobad keeno taasina waa iga talo.
Dhibaatada dhulboodka ee ka jirta Somaliland waxaa lagu qiyaasi karaa mid xadhka goosatey kol hadii sheekh Baladkii Galbeedka Somalilandba Ka hadlisay Saameynteedu
Sheekh Cabdilahi Sh.Cali Jawhar waa mid ka mida Culimada waaweyn ee Somaliland waana sheekh wadani ah oo Jecel wadankiisa Somaliland iyo midnimada dadka Somaliland wuxuu ka qayb qaatey dib u dhiskii somaliland cusub hadii dadkii caanka ahaa ka cabanayaan dhul si sharciga aan waafaqsaneyn looga qaadayo maxaad u maleynaysaa dadkii iska caadiga ahaa waxaa la gudboon dadka Somaliland iney bedelaan dhaqanka xun ee dhulka iyo beeraha dadka lagu boobayo oo Allah(swt) laga cabsado cadaaladana la ilaaliyo dawladana waxaa laga rabaa iney qorshe la timaato wax laga qabanayo dhibaatooyinka dhulka ee faraha ka baxay.
Sheekha baladkana waxaa lee nahay dhacdhaca dadkaaga iskaga samir wixii inaga qaldan waaynu wada sixine Allahna ha ina waafajiyo cadaalada iyo wanaaga Isha Allah .
Ugu horeyn waxaa aan tacsi u dirayaa ehelkii ay ka baxeyn dadkaa ku geeriyoodey shilkaa foosha xun ee ka dhacay wajaale Allah na waxaa uga baryayaa inuu u naxariisto dhamaantood aamin yaa Allah.
Waxyar hadaan ka idhahdo dhintan waxaa aan u arkaa sidan:
Caafimaadka iyo Badbaadada waa waajibka qofkasta in uu ilaaliyo balse dawlada ayaa masuul ka ah dejinta siyaasada caafimaadka iyo badabaada taas oo u baahan in hayad gaara oo aqoonteeda leh loo abuuro,lagu tababaro dhamaan shaqaalaha dawlada iyo kuwa gaarka u xoogsadaba loo dejiyo sharcigii lagu maamulilahaa lagula xisaabtamo cid walba.
Melaha ugu daran waxaa ka mida ee dayaacad weyni ka jirto dawladuna aaney waxba ka qaban :
1- Koronto gelinta magaalooyinka (urban electricity supply ) gurikasta ama xafiiskasta oo ay ku jirto caasimada hargeysa waxaa ka soojeeda xadhko danabeysan oo qaawan xitaa xafiisyada dawlada ee maamulka sare ayaad ka heleysaa , waxaa jira tiirar aan ku habooneyn in lagu xidho xadhkaha leydhka oo ay ku xidhan yihiin marka ay dabeyshu timaatana tirarkii oo dhulka daadsan baad arkeysaa oo halis ku ah dadka iyo hantidoodaba.
2. Dhismayaasha kala duwan ma arkeysid qof ka shaqeenaya dhismo oo gashan dharkii iyo qalabkii loogu talagaley in laga badbaado dhibaatada dhismaha ka dhalan karta , mana arkeysid hayad u xilsaaran oo ku kormeereysa ama aqoon teeda leh oo xitaa tabaro iyo wacyo gelin siineysa dadka xitaa ma jiro tabar kooban iyo wacyi gelin sida gargaarka degdega ah(First AID).
3- Wadooyinka oo xitaa lahayn hal calaamad oo digniin ah sida (Road signs), meelaha dadku ka talaabayo iwm, waxaad arkeysaa Cusbitaalada oo gaadhi hoonka ku yeedhinayo oo aaney jirin cid dan ka leh, dooxooyinka daadadku ka soo rogmadaan oo aan xitaa lahayn calaamadihii digniinta.
Caasimada Somaliland ee Hargeysa kama heli kareysid hal calaamadeed oo qofka baabur ku dhexwada u sheegeysa waxaa uu samenayo (no traffic signs).
Arimahan iyo kuwo kale oo badan waa dayacaado ay masuulka tahay dawlada somaliland ilaa intii lagu soo noqday dalka wax kamey qaban caafimaadka iyo badbaada sidaa darteed ayey maalin walba guri soo dumayaa,daadku qaadayaa gawaadhida laydhkuna qabsanayaa dadkii,hadii aan wax laga qaban dhibaatooyinkaa waxay noqondoonaan uu kuwo joogto ah oo weliba dhibaatooyinkoodu sii bataan akhristoow bal waxaad eegtaa uun hadii aad hargeysa ku nooshay :
a) Wadada ku hormartaa siday xorfada u tahay
b) guriga aad ku jirtaa xadhkaha leydhka ee soo galaa tiirarka ay ku xidhan yihiin qaradooda iyo tayadooda.
c) guri aad ku nooshay bal sida uu ugu adkeysan karo dabeelaha xoogan ama xitaa badqabkiisa .
arimahan oo dhami waa kuwo aad cidina dafiri karin magaaladuna wey koreysaa maalinba maalinta ka dambeysa.
Sidaa darteed waxaa loo bahan yahay sharcigii caafimaadka iyo badbaadada ee dalka.
Sida laga warqabo Muqdisho waxay noqotey meel bahalo galeen ah oo maalin walba tacadiyada dadkii Somaliyeed ee daganaa kufsi,dil iyo dhac badheedha lagu hayo taas oo dawladla’aantu sabab u tahay caalamkuna ay dhoodhoobayaan budhcad aan diirnaxa lahay oo magaca umada somaliyeed ku shaqeysanaya lugooyo uun ku haya shacabka somaliyeed ee konfurta bal ila eeg warkii ugu dambeyey inan shaqeysanayey oo si badheedha loogu toogtey muqdisho halkan ka daawo:
Somaliland waa dal madaxbanaan oo Maamulaha dhamaan dalkiisa iyo dadkiisa sidaa darteed caalamka waxaa la gudboon iney budhcada muqdisho joogta ee dadkoodii iyo dalkoodiiba dayacay runta u sheegaan ugana digaan iney soo farageliyaan arimaha gudaha ee Jamhuuriyada Somaliland.
Sidoo kale Shacbiga Somaliland waxaa la gudboon iney Dawladooda is garabtaagaan oo meel looga soo wada jeesto waxkasta oo madaxbanaanida qaranka cadow ku ah.
Wasaarada Arimaha Dibada Somaliland ayaa Warkan ka Soo saartey Xaalada hada ee Kooxda muqdisho afka ka sheeganayaan dal horumarey iyo dad tashadey oo qarannimo buuxda hatysta.
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Hadii aynu dul marno guud ahaanba taariikhda boolisku waa mid aad qadiimi u ah waxaana ciidamo boolis markii ugu horeyey abuuray dalka Masar (Egypt) 3000 BCE. Ka dib boqortooyadii waxay u qaybisay 42 qaybood oo awood maamul waxaana maamulkasta Fircoon(pharaoh) u magacaabey sarkaal masuul ka ah cadaalada( Justice) iyo nabadgelyada (security). Eareyga police waxaa kuu ka soo jeedaa ereyga polis ee Giriig ah macnahiisuna waa magaalo(city).
Taariikhda ciidamad booliska ee caalamka ma ah mid maqaal kooban lagu soo koobikaro sidaa awgeed hadii aynu intaa ku dhaafno taariikhada booliska, aynu u guda galno shaqadooda iyo muhiimada ay u leedahay bulshada caalamka guud ahaan.
Boolisku sida caadiga ah waxaa uu masuul ka yahay sugida nabadgelyada iyo ilaalinta kala dabeenta ,fulinta sharciga iyo ka hortaga dambiyada, raadinta iyo baaritaanka falal dambiyeedyada.
Sidaa darteed boolisku waa kuwo shaqo aad u muhiima u haya bulshooyinkooda ama dalkooda, shaqadaa oo ah mid naf hurid ah oo mar walba askariga booliska ahi ka fakirayo sidii uu u caawin lahaa qof dhibaateysan.
Halkaas ayaad ka garan gartaa hawsha uu qarankiisa u hayo qofka booliska ah sidaa darteed mar walba waxaa la gudboon qof kasta oo inaga mid ahi in uu gacan siiyo booliska iyo hawlahooda.
Boolisku waa saaxiibka bulshada waxaana mar walba ka dhexeeya bulshada iyo booliska wada shaqayn iyo istixgelin waayo waxay wada ilaalinayaan nabada.
Hadii aan dib u eego Booliska Somaliland waa kuwo ku amaanan kaalinta ay kaga jiraan nabada,waxayna wada shaqayn wanaagsan la lee yihiin bulshada taasina waa mida suura gelisay in nabadgelyada magaalooyinka Somaliland noqdaan kuwo si fiican lays kugu haleyn karo nabadooda.
Muwaadiniyiinta Somaliland waxaan ku buurinayaa iney booliska kala shaqeeyaan nabad, iyo howlahooda waana in aynu iska ilaalinaa in ciidamada booliska ka qorno warar been ah oo aaney waxba ka jirin sideedaba beentu waa dhaqan xun oo aan Allah(swt) inooga digey, waxaanan saxaafada iyo dadka wax qora kula dardarmayaa iney iska hubiyaan wararka ay qorayaan sugnaashahooda.