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The 6 Stages of Behavior Change

By Kendra Cherry

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology.

Learn about our editorial policy

Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSWon July 01, 2019

Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book “13 Things Mentally Strong People Don’t Do,” and a highly sought-after speaker.

Learn about our Wellness Board

Amy Morin, LCSW

Updated on November 27, 2019

Illustration by JR Bee, Verywell

How to Get Started With Changing Your Behavior

Whether you want to lose weight, stop smoking, or accomplish another goal, there is no single solution that works for everyone. You may have to try several different techniques, often through a process of trial-and-error, to achieve your goal.

It’s during this period that many people become discouraged and give up on their behavior change goals. The key to maintaining your goals is to try new techniques and find ways to stay motivated.

Change might not come easily, but psychologists have developed a number of ways to effectively help people change their behavior. Many of these techniques are used by therapists, physicians, and teachers. Researchers have also proposed theories to explain how change occurs. Understanding the elements of change, the stages of change, and ways to work through each stage can help you achieve your goals.

The Elements of Change

To succeed, you need to understand the three most important elements in changing a behavior:

  • Readiness to change: Do you have the resources and knowledge to make a lasting change successfully?
  • Barriers to change: Is there anything preventing you from changing?
  • Expect relapse: What might trigger a return to a former behavior?1

Stages of Change Model

One of the best-known approaches to change is known as the Stages of Change or Transtheoretical Model, which was introduced in the late 1970s by researchers James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente who were studying ways to help people quit smoking.2The Stages of Change Model has been found to be an effective aid in understanding how people go through a change in behavior.

In this model, change occurs gradually and relapses are an inevitable part of the process of making a lifelong change. People are often unwilling or resistant to change during the early stages, but they eventually develop a proactive and committed approach to changing a behavior.

This model demonstrates that change is rarely easy and often requires a gradual progression of small steps toward a larger goal.

Stage 1: Precontemplation


  • Denial
  • Ignorance of the problem


  • Rethink your behavior
  • Introspection and self-analysis
  • Assess risks of current behavior

The earliest stage of change is known as precontemplation.2during the precontemplation stage, people are not considering a change. People in this stage are often described as “in denial” due to claims that their behavior is not a problem.

If you are in this stage, you may feel resigned to your current state or believe that you have no control over your behavior.

In some cases, people in this stage do not understand that their behavior is damaging or are under-informed about the consequences of their actions.

If you are in this stage, begin by asking yourself some questions. Have you ever tried to change this behavior in the past? How do you recognize that you have a problem? What would have to happen for you to consider your behavior a problem?

Stage 2: Contemplation


  • Ambivalence
  • Conflicted emotions


  • Weigh pros and cons of behavior change
  • Confirm readiness and ability to change
  • Identify barriers to change

During this stage, people become more and more aware of the potential benefits of making a change, but the costs tend to stand out even more. This conflict creates a strong sense of ambivalence about changing.

Because of this uncertainty, the contemplation stage of change can last months or even years.2

Many people never make it past the contemplation phase.

You may view change as a process of giving something up rather than a means of gaining emotional, mental, or physical benefits.

If you are contemplating a behavior change, there are some important questions to ask yourself: Why do you want to change? Is there anything preventing you from changing? What are some things that could help you make this change?

Stage 3: Preparation


  • Experimenting with small changes
  • Collecting information about change


  • Write down your goals
  • Prepare a plan of action
  • Make a list of motivating statements

During the preparation stage, you might begin making small changes to prepare for a larger life change.2

For example, if losing weight is your goal, you might switch to lower-fat foods. 3 If your goal is to quit smoking, you might switch brands or smoke less each day. You might also take some sort of direct action such as consulting a therapist, joining a health club, or reading self-help books.

If you are in the preparation stage, there are some steps you can take to improve your chances of successfully making a lasting life change.

Gather as much information as you can about ways to change your behavior. Prepare a list of motivating statements and write down your goals. Find outside resources such as support groups, counselors, or friends who can offer advice and encouragement.

Stage 4: Action


  • Taking direct action toward a goal


  • Reward your successes
  • Seek out social support

During the fourth stage of change, people begin taking direct action in order to accomplish their goals.2 Oftentimes, resolutions fail because the previous steps have not been given enough thought or time.

For example, many people make a New Year’s resolution to lose weight and immediately start a new exercise regimen, begin eating a healthier diet, and cut back on snacks. These definitive steps are vital to success, but these efforts are often abandoned in a matter of weeks because the previous steps have been overlooked.

If you are currently taking action towards achieving a goal, congratulate and reward yourself for any positive steps you take. Reinforcement and support are extremely important in helping maintain positive steps toward change.

Take the time to periodically review your motivations, resources, and progress in order to refresh your commitment and belief in your abilities.

Stage 5: Maintenance


  • Maintaining a new behavior
  • Avoiding temptation


  • Develop coping strategies for temptation
  • Remember to reward yourself

The maintenance phase of the Stages of Change Model involves successfully avoiding former behaviors and keeping up new behaviors.3

During this stage, people become more assured that they will be able to continue their change.

If you are trying to maintain a new behavior, look for ways to avoid temptation. Try replacing old habits with more positive actions. Reward yourself when you are able to successfully avoid a relapse. If you do lapse, don’t be too hard on yourself or give up.

Instead, remind yourself that it was just a minor setback. As you will learn in the next stage, relapses are common and are a part of the process of making a lifelong change.

Stage 6: Relapse


  • Disappointment
  • Frustration
  • Feelings of failure


  • Identify triggers that lead to relapse
  • Recognize barriers to success
  • Reaffirm your goal and commitment to change

In any behavior change, relapses are a common occurrence.4 When you go through a relapse, you might experience feelings of failure, disappointment, and frustration.

The key to success is to not let these setbacks undermine your self-confidence. If you lapse back to an old behavior, take a hard look at why it happened. What triggered the relapse? What can you do to avoid these triggers in the future?

While relapses can be difficult, the best solution is to start again with the preparation, action, or maintenance stages of behavior change.

You might want to reassess your resources and techniques. Reaffirm your motivation, plan of action, and commitment to your goals. Also, make plans for how you will deal with any future temptations.

Resolutions fail when the proper preparation and actions are not taken. By approaching a goal with an understanding of how to best prepare, act, and maintain a new behavior, you will be more likely to succeed.

A Word From Verywell

It’s not easy to make a major change and make it stick. You may be more successful in keeping your resolutions by using these steps. Many clinical programs for behavior change use these steps, from smoking cessation to addiction recovery. If you decide you need a structured program to support your change, you may recognize these steps being used

Source : VeryWellMind


Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment

By Deborah R. Glasofer, PhD Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD

Medically reviewed bySteven Gans, MD on July 08, 2018

Steven Gans, MD, is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.Learn about our Medical Review Board Updated on August 07, 2019

Everyone experiences anxiety. But people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are frequently distracted by their worries, avoidant of activities that might stir up the anxiety, and “on edge” without explanation. In most cases of GAD, the anxiety negatively impacts the individual’s relationships and/or performance at school or work.

Treatment for GAD aims to help people feel better mentally and physically and to increase engagement with the people, places, and situations that previously elicited worry.

Given the far-reaching effect that anxiety can have on day-to-day functioning, even low-grade anxiety that does not meet the threshold for a firm diagnosis can be worth working on.

treatment options for generalized anxiety disorder
Verywell / Cindy Chung


Psychotherapy is a popular form of treatment for GAD. “Talk therapy” can be performed by a variety of mental health professionals, and though the approaches described below can overlap, they are guided by differing theories and emphases.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the gold standard of psychotherapy1 and one of the most popular treatments for GAD. Proven to work for adults2 just as effectively as it does for younger patients,3 CBT focuses on present difficulties and current situations. CBT is typically a short-term, structured treatment that focuses on the interplay between the conscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that perpetuate anxiety.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is another present- and problem-focused talk therapy used to treat GAD. Although similar to CBT, the goal of ACT is to reduce the struggle to control anxious thoughts or uncomfortable sensations and increase involvement in meaningful activities that align with chosen life values. ACT can produce symptom improvement in people with GAD, and may be a particularly good fit for older adults.4

Other Talk Therapies

Two other types of “talk therapy”—psychodynamic therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy—can also be used in the treatment of GAD.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy, also known as insight-oriented therapy, is based on the idea that thoughts and emotions that are outside of our consciousness (i.e., outside of our awareness) can lead to internal conflict and manifest as anxiety.

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a time-limited, present-focused treatment based on the assumption that symptoms may be caused or maintained by problems in relationships, and that resolving these problems can help reduce symptoms.Find Therapeutic Support With the 7 Best Online Anxiety Support Groups


Medications for anxiety work by interacting with brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. Particular medications may block the absorption or enhance the action of one or more of these chemicals.

The different types of medications used in the treatment of anxiety include:

  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
  • anxiolytics
  • tri-cyclic antidepressants

Also, another “older” category of antidepressants—monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)—are sometimes used.

Antidepressants have a well-documented ability to help with GAD symptoms, but they can take several weeks to take effect. SSRIs, such as sertraline (Zoloft) or fluoxetine (Prozac), are typically considered a good, first-line choice for the treatment of GAD because they are relatively safe medications that tend to be well tolerated by individuals.

Anxiolytics, such as benzodiazepines, do not treat the underlying cause of anxiety, but they are effective in the treatment of symptoms. However, this class of medication has some notable drawbacks, including potential side effects like sedation and a tendency to be habit-forming. Buspirone (Buspar) is one medication in this class that is approved for the treatment of GAD and is not known to be habit-forming. There is some evidence that buspirone may also help augment antidepressants.

Tricyclic antidepressants are an older type of antidepressants that are used less commonly because they may carry some potentially significant side effects.


Self-help refers to less formal approaches that address anxiety symptoms with limited (or no) guidance. For example, there are several self-help books that provide help in a step-by-step format and closely mirror evidence-based psychotherapies for GAD, such as CBT or ACT.

With the advent of smartphone technology and the rising popularity of interactive applications, there are now also electronic self-help options that deliver programs informed by evidence-based GAD treatment. There are also applications available with circumscribed, do-it-yourself anxiety-busting tools, like relaxation techniques and mindfulness meditation exercises.

The Best Option for You

Speaking with a clinician—a physician or mental health provider—is the best way to figure out next step(s). Depending on the nature and extent of the anxiety symptoms, one or a combination of the approaches described above may be useful.

In general, mild or intermittent anxiety may improve with the use self-help resources. Self-help resources are also a good option for those wishing to pursue an evidence-based psychotherapy who lack access to specialized care. Self-help options can also be used in conjunction with ongoing treatment, or to prevent relapse and promote continued progress after the conclusion of a course of psychotherapy.

If your symptoms are persistent, are impacting your day-to-day functioning and/or the important relationships in your life, or are clearly noticeable to others, then more formal treatment is worth considering.

For anxiety of a moderate to a severe degree, a course of psychotherapy may be indicated. Medications can help with persistent anxiety of any degree.

When considering psychotherapy versus medication, it is important to note that psychotherapy may take longer to bring symptom relief than medication, but its effects can also be longer lasting (i.e., the insight and skills learned in psychotherapy are retained after treatment ends). And for some individuals with GAD, maximizing treatment—taking medication and participating in psychotherapy—maximizes results.

Making the decision that’s right for you is really a process of ongoing assessment. If you select a self-help approach, be aware that persistent or worsening symptoms are indicators that you would benefit from an in-person evaluation by a clinician.

With medication or psychotherapy treatment, find a provider you trust and ask questions to fully understand what type of treatment you will be receiving as well as its risks and benefits (You can read more on deciding if medication is right for you here).

When pursuing treatment of any kind, it is important to be patient and to participate in regular monitoring of symptoms (and, in the case of medication treatment, side effects) with your clinician.

A Word From Verywell

While the symptoms associated with GAD are undeniably uncomfortable, the good news is that they are treatable. The treatments described above will take work, but the work will pay off in the form of relief and respite from anxiety and worry.

source: verywellmind


How Psychotherapy Is Used to Treat Disorders

By Kendra Cherry

Kendra Cherry

Kendra Cherry

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Updated on November 26, 2019

Female mental health professional talks with patient
asiseeit / Getty Images

Psychotherapy is a general term that is used to describe the process of treating psychological disorders and mental distress through the use of verbal and psychological techniques. During this process, a trained psychotherapist helps the client tackle specific or general problems such as a particular mental illness or a source of life stress.

Depending on the approach used by the therapist, a wide range of techniques and strategies can be used. However, almost all types of psychotherapy involve developing a therapeutic relationship, communicating and creating a dialogue, and working to overcome problematic thoughts or behaviors.

Psychotherapy is increasingly viewed as a distinct profession in its own right, but many different types of professionals engage in psychotherapy regularly. Such individuals include clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, marriage and family therapists, social workers, mental health counselors, and psychiatric nurses.

Types of Psychotherapy

When many people hear the word psychotherapy, they immediately imagine a patient lying on a couch talking while a therapist sits in a nearby chair jotting down thoughts on a yellow notepad. There are actually a variety of techniques and practices used in psychotherapy. The exact method used in each situation can vary based upon a variety of factors, including the training and background of the therapist, the preferences of the client, and the exact nature of the client’s current problem.

Some of the major approaches to psychotherapy include:

Psychoanalytic Therapy: While psychotherapy was practiced in various forms as far back as the time of the Ancient Greeks, it received its formal start when Sigmund Freud began using talk therapy to work with patients. Some of the techniques commonly used by Freud included the analysis of transference, dream interpretation, and free association. This psychoanalytic approach involves delving into a patient’s thoughts and past experiences to seek out unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories that may influence behavior.

Behavioral Therapy: When behaviorism became a more prominent school of thought during the early part of the twentieth-century, techniques such as different types of conditioning began to play an important role in psychotherapy. While behaviorism may not be as dominant as it once was, many of its methods are still very popular today. Behavioral therapy often uses classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning to help clients alter problematic behaviors.

Humanistic Therapy: Starting in the 1950s, the school of thought known as humanistic psychology began to have an influence on psychotherapy. The humanist psychologist Carl Rogers developed an approach known as client-centered therapy, which focused on the therapist showing unconditional positive regard to the client. Today, aspects of this approach remain widely used. The humanistic approach to psychotherapy focuses on helping people maximize their potential. Such approaches tend to stress the importance of self-exploration, free will, and self-actualization.

Cognitive Therapy: The cognitive revolution of the 1960s also had a major impact on the practice of psychotherapy, as psychologists began to increasingly focus on how human thought processes influence behavior and functioning. Cognitive therapy is centered on the idea that our thoughts have a powerful influence on our mental well-being. For example, if you tend to see the negative aspects of every situation, you will probably have a more pessimistic outlook and a gloomier overall mood. The goal of cognitive therapy is to identify the cognitive distortions that lead to this type of thinking and replace such thoughts with more realistic and positive ones. By doing so, people are able to improve their moods and overall well-being.

Cognitive-behavioral Therapy: The approach known as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. CBT is commonly used to treat a wide range of disorders including phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety. CBT is a type of psychotherapy that involves cognitive and behavioral techniques to change negative thoughts and maladaptive behaviors. This approach involves changing the underlying thoughts that contribute to distress and modifying the problematic behaviors that result from these thoughts.

Formats of Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy can also take a number of different formats depending on the style of the therapist and the needs of the patient. A few that you might encounter include:

  • Individual therapy, which involves working one-on-one with a psychotherapist.
  • Couples therapy, which involves a therapist working with a couple to help improve how the two function in their relationship.
  • Family therapy, which centers on improving the dynamic within families and can include multiple individuals within a family unit.
  • Group therapy, which involves a small group of individuals who share a common goal. This approach allows members of the group to offer and receive support from others, as well as practice new behaviors within a supportive and receptive group.

Source: Verywellmind


Simple Housekeeping Tips For Less Stress

By Elizabeth Scott, MS Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of “8 Keys to Stress Management.” Updated February 07, 2018

Cleaning with music can relieve stress
Playing music is one of the best ways to make cleaning fun. Creative RM/Kactus/Getty Images

Most people don’t’ realize how much clutter causes stress, but it’s true that living in a mess can drain you of time, energy, and even money, creating significant amounts of additional stress. Unfortunately, a cluttered home is the norm. But while stressed, overscheduled people have little time to clean, given the value of having your home as a sanctuary from stress, as well as what you save by being organized, it makes sense to keep your house clean. The key is to be smart about cleaning, and clean in a way that causes little additional stress, or actually help you reduce stress while you clean. There are many specific tips on how to declutter a space or an entire home, but one important aspect of cleaning that shouldn’t be overlooked is keeping things low-stress and as enjoyable as possible so you don’t mind the chore. If you’re able to do this, you’ll be more likely to clean on a more regular basis and this can reduce the stress of cleaning as well. The following low-stress housekeeping tips can help you do all of this:

Put on Some Music

There are many proven benefits of music for stress relief, and music is even used to promote wellness in the form of music therapy. Music can actually calm you down or energize you, depending on what type of music you choose. You can harness the stress relieving and energy-inducing powers of music to help your cleaning efforts so that you’re actually less stressed (or at least no more stressed and tired) when you’re finished, plus you’ll get a boost from the great feelings you get from your cleaner space.

Pare Down and Organize

Toss or donate everything that you don’t need or love. Find a place for everything that’s left, so it’ll be easier to clean up. And don’t buy new things unless you absolutely need them. These simple guidelines will leave you with less stuff to clutter up your space and make cleaning quicker and easier.

Make Small, Consistent Goals

When creating new habits of any type, it’s good to make realistic goals, work toward them consistently and reward yourself for even the smallest progress. This is also true for cleaning. If you set small, doable cleaning goals, such as 30 Second Chores (a list of chores that can be done quickly so that you can knock a bunch out when you have a few free minutes), or a Daily Cleaning List (which is a group of lists that cover all chores so that you’ll keep your house clean over the course of a week or month if you just do a few a day), you won’t get overwhelmed by the work.

Enjoy Your Results

Clean a little bit every day, and you just may have the magic formula for a cleaner, stress-free living environment. Further your rewards and keep your motivation up by enjoying your home when your work is done! If you clean your bathroom, give yourself a regular home spa experience so you can really appreciate all of your hard work. Enjoy a candlelit dinner in your kitchen, burn essential oils to enjoy aromatherapy, and decorate in a way that really makes your heart smile. Once you get used to having your home as a sanctuary from stress instead of another cause of it, you’ll probably be hooked


How to Get Organized to Manage Stress

By Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated October 15, 2019

Being organized can help with stress relief
Anthony Harvie / Stone / Getty Images
Stress Management

Want a secret weapon for relieving stress? Getting organized. Putting in the effort of getting organized, especially if this organization extends to multiple areas of your life, can help reduce stress levels long term by requiring less last-minute scrambling in a variety of everyday situations. It can also feel empowering, so you experience new situations as “exciting” rather than “stressful,” which can minimize the strength and duration of your stress response, or keep it from getting triggered in the first place.

However, getting organized is more difficult than it initially sounds. For example, how organized must you be? When do you know when you’re ‘organized enough’? (Do your clothes need to be hung according to color, or alphabetically? Must every minute be scheduled and accounted for in a calendar somewhere?) And what are the most important areas of life for getting organized?

The following tips for getting organized cover how organized to be, what areas carry the greatest benefits, and how to get started:

Organize Your House

A cluttered home can subtly drain you of energy; that much is pretty common knowledge. However, there are other hidden costs of clutter as well. (Clutter can drain your finances and schedule, too.) That’s why it’s important to organize your home. While you don’t need to have your books alphabetized or your shoes lined up according to the date you bought them, it is important to have everything in its place and have that place be somewhere that makes sense. There are a variety of ways to maintain an organized home.

Organize Your Time

Do you find yourself constantly rushing? Does your mind race with all that you have to do? And do you have trouble remembering it all? If so, you already know that living like this can be pretty stressful, don’t you? Getting organized with your time can make a huge impact on your life: Your to-do list can all get done, and it can stop occupying your thoughts.

In getting your schedule organized, remember a few important things. First, don’t overbook yourself. Plan only as many activities as you have time for. Also, be aware of what you need to get done and when—in a way other than keeping it all in your head. (I recommend David Allen’s Getting Things Done for a cohesive time management plan.) Finally, schedule in some downtime. If you’re always running, running, running, you may be less efficient overall because you’re tired of all the running. Schedule in some downtime, and you can really focus the rest of the time.

Be Proactive

Yes, you may consider being proactive with your problems to be part of getting organized in that it’s a tendency to be organized with your approach to stress, which can be quite empowering. It’s important to notice and eliminate patterns of stressors so that your stress response isn’t constantly triggered. For example, if you’re having trouble with your kids, don’t just face each situation like it’s happened for the first time; try to notice patterns of behavior and address those patterns, so they won’t keep happening. (I like to call that ‘getting organized with discipline.”) If you find yourself constantly stressed in traffic, try to pinpoint why, and address those issues.

You can be organized in your life in a host of ways. These are three of the main ones. Give them a try, and start feeling less stressed today.

source: Verywell Mind


Thousands Of Doctors Want FDA To Warn Women About Cheese And Breast Cancer Link

By Darwin Malicdem

Nonprofit organization Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has called on the federal government to consider adding label to cheese ADVERTISEMENT products that would warn women about the risk of breast cancer. Doctors said hormones found in cow milk-based cheese could contribute to development of the disease. 

PCRM sent a petition to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early in October as part of its campaign during the Breast Cancer Awareness Month, Insider reported Monday. The document highlights a study that found high-fat cheese products could increase breast cancer risk by 53 percent in women. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers breast cancer as the second most common cause of death for women in the country. The disease affects more than 240,000 women every year and causes more than 40,000 deaths.

PCRM aims to promote plant-based nutrition and lower consumption of animal products for better health. Up to 12,000 members agreed with the findings that cheese made from cow’s milk could be harmful. 

They are concerned with the hormones that can be transferred to cheese from cows during the manufacturing process. These potentially harmful hormones include IGF-1, which has been directly linked to breast cancer. 

“Instead of cheese manufacturers slapping a pink ribbon on products as they have done during previous Breast Cancer Awareness Months, they should be adding warning labels,” Neal Barnard, president of PCRM, said in a press release. “We want women to be aware that dairy cheese could put them at risk of dying from breast cancer.”

However, women can still continue eating some cheese and other dairy products, PCRM noted. Adding low-fat dairy products to diets could also offer some benefits, such as lower risk of cancer. 

The Mediterranean diet can be the best approach for people who want to add more cheese to their daily meals. This diet has been considered as one of the healthiest in the world because of a good combination of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and healthy fats.

No Danger In Cheese

One nutritionist expressed concerns with the study cited by PCRM in their petition. Keri Gans said the research involved too many variables to directly link cheese to breast cancer risk.

Women’s lifestyle and some dietary factors should be considered. She said a well-balanced diet would allow women to avoid the negative effects of cheese by managing daily consumption and intake of saturated fat. 

“There is no danger in cheese,” Gans added. “We can’t blame anything on one particular food, as much as we might like to. We need to look at a person’s total diet. I’m not convinced and I’m not sure the consumer should be either.”


Doctors said hormones found in cow milk-based cheese could contribute to development of breast cancer in women

Source: medical daily


How to Handle Political Bullying on Facebook

woman's hands using a smartphone
diego_cervo / iStockphoto

By Sherri Gordon Updated October 06, 2019

Everyone has one—that Facebook friend that posts obnoxious, and sometimes offensive, political statements, articles, memes and more every day, multiple times a day. You know—that friend that has a strong opinion about anything and everything political. Even if you agree with her political views, you cringe at the inflammatory way she states her opinions.

If you find yourself in this situation, you are not alone. In fact, unfriending someone for their political views is fairly common.

According to a study by Pew Research Center, nearly 20 percent of social media users have blocked, unfriended or hidden someone because of their political posts online.

This fact should not be surprising. Civility in politics has been decreasing for a long time and people are losing patience with the rhetoric. Much of this increase in online bullying, shaming, and political bullying has to do with the changing culture and the ability to insult others on the Internet. These insults are often made through the use of blogs, social media and more. Consequently, it is not surprising that people have become much freer with their use of words. This has become painfully apparent in recent years as religious and political disagreements become more and more volatile. And while many people have embraced the freedom that social media provides, just as many are simply fed up.

A Closer Look at the Political Bullying in the 2016 Election

In the 2016 election, both candidates engaged in name-calling and other bullying tactics. For instance, Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, called people who supported Republican presidential nominee, “deplorables,” and said they were irredeemable. Meanwhile, Trump labeled Clinton a “nasty woman” and referred to her as “Crooked Hillary.”

Even the supporters of each candidate engaged in bullying tactics. On social media, Clinton supporters shamed Trump supporters by calling them racists, homophobes, xenophobes and a variety of other labels. On the Republican side of things, supporters yelled “build that wall,” and chanted “lock her up” at rallies and posted similar sentiments online.

There is no doubt that the campaigning and debates in 2016 ignited tempers, unlike any other presidential race, has done. And while there has always been some mudslinging during elections, the 2016 election was much more volatile, much more personal. Many believe that the passionate disagreements were far more prevalent because of the ease and influence of social media. What’s more, social media empowers people to say things that they would never say to someone’s face. Much of this has to do with the fact that they can hide behind a computer screen.

As a result, during the election season, people on social media were not just ranting about how much they disliked the candidates, but they often took it a step further. They also ranted about how much they disliked anyone who might support an opposing candidate often engaging in name-calling, shaming, labeling and sometimes even threats of violence. It was cyberbullying at its worst.

And while most would argue that people have a right to speak their mind, is bullying through social media really free speech? Most would argue that in some ways the mean-spirited posts, the labeling, and the name-calling actually silence free speech. As a result, people are afraid to be honest about what they really think for fear of being judged or labeled.​

Additionally, when people do not talk about their views or why they believe a certain way, they start to make assumptions about what other people believe. This often causes them to believe that they are being judged. They also assume that people are displeased with them or disagree with them. Yet, they have never talked about what they truly believe nor have they asked why their friends believe the way that they do. As a result, there is a lot of hostility and frustration based solely on assumptions.

Tips for Dealing With Obnoxious Political Posts

If you are someone that would rather see posts about a person’s dinner than her monologue about a political candidate, here are some sure-fire ways to navigate the lack of digital etiquette on Facebook without losing your sanity.

Take a minute. When it comes to social media, it is easy to fire off a response before you really think about it. Resist the urge to react instead of respond. Slow down and take a minute. Scroll past the post and read something else. The goal is to avoid posting something equally inflammatory and then later regretting it. Remember, even if you delete your comment later, you can never truly make it go away. So put on the brakes. A thoughtful response, or even no response at all, is a much better approach in the long run.

Ask why. Not only does it allow for greater understanding, but it also broadens your own perspective. Just be sure to ask in a way that doesn’t put your friend on the defensive. You don’t want her to feel like she has to justify her feelings to you. Instead, keep the focus on the issues. Additionally, it might be best to have this type of conversation offline and in person. This way, you can actually see the emotions she is expressing rather than trying to assume you know by interpreting her words. A lot of interpretation is lost online. It is risky to assume you know what someone is feeling when all you have to go on are a few typed words.

If you do not understand why a friend feels so strongly, ask her. Find out how this impacts her life. Sometimes it helps to view the world through a different lens.

Ignore, scan or move on. Sometimes the best way to deal with cringe-worthy political posts is to simply scan through them and move on, especially if the post is simply a rant laced with name-calling and labeling. An even better option is to ignore them altogether. Remember, you cannot control what your Facebook friend posts online. And you probably won’t be able to change her mind or even get her to see your side of things. But you can control how you respond. And if reading her posts irritates you, ruins your day or causes you anxiety, then it is healthier for you to ignore them. Do not allow another person’s blanket bullying statements impact you and your day.

Utilize the hide or block options. Fortunately, Facebook offers some options for dealing with the deluge of political bullying that takes place online. One option is to “hide” your friend. With this option, you remain friends but you no longer see her posts in your newsfeed. A lot of people appreciate this option because they do not want the drama of unfriending someone online, but they also do not want to see their blatantly inappropriate posts any longer either. Of course, the other option is to unfriend the person and even block her from friending you again. This option should only be used in extreme cases where you no longer hope to have contact or a relationship with the person. It is very hard to salvage a friendship once you have unfriended or blocked them on Facebook.

Remember who you are dealing with. If you are friends with this person online, chances are you have some sort of relationship with the person. So when you see something that is unsettling, take a step back and look at the big picture. Is your friend going through a tough time right now? Could these political posts have something to do with a bigger issue in her life? Try to be empathetic and remember why you are friends with this person in the first place. However, if your friend’s political views define who she is as a person and it gets under your skin, you have some evaluating to do. Is this person a toxic friend that you should avoid, or is her friendship worth an effort?

Set some limits. If you find yourself getting too worked up about other people’s political posts and subtle bullying online, it might be a good idea to take a break. You need to protect yourself from the negative feelings these posts create in you. As a result, you may want to limit the time you spend on Facebook or take a break from it altogether. Or maybe the answer is to avoid engaging in any political discussions online. If you find that you absolutely have to say something in response to all the negativity online, consider journaling your responses but then never posting them. In this way, you have released your frustration by formulating a response, but you have not offended anyone, or ticked off your employer, by actually posting it.

Check your answers. Remember, there are a lot of unsubstantiated articles and information online. Make sure that if you do post a response to a political post, that your post is factual and can be verified. You don’t want to contribute to the plethora of misinformation that is floating around on Facebook. Make sure that what you post is factual, accurate and not offensive. Keep in mind, that your goal should become a conscientious poster and not just someone who shares sensationalized stories because of their shock value. The last thing you want to do is to become just like your obnoxiously-political friend. After all, you need to protect your online reputation

Source : VerywellMind


The Relationship Between Sleep and Stress

By Elizabeth Scott, MS

If you find that you are stressed and not getting enough sleep, you’re not alone. In a national sleep survey, 40 percent of respondents said they aren’t getting the recommended amount of rest. Many of the stressors we face in modern life, such as traffic jams, difficult co-workers, or relationship conflicts, can trigger a fight-or-flight response, and prolonged exposure to this stress without relaxation can result in shorter sleep duration and poorer quality sleep. To improve sleep quality and cope with chronic stress, some strategies are more effective than others.

How Chronic Stress Affects Sleep

When you experience a perceived threat (physical or psychological, real or imagined), your body’s hormonal stress response gets triggered, creating a cascade of physical changes that lead to the release of glucocorticoids like cortisol by the endocrine system. The release of cortisol and other stress hormones creates a burst of energy that allows you to fight or run from a real and present danger.

A healthy stress response involves a quick cortisol spike followed by a rapid decrease once the stressful event has passed. This endocrine system response is controlled by negative feedback loops mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) access in the central nervous system.

What’s important to know in this context is that the HPA access also plays an important role in modulating the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle. Prolonged stress levels have been correlated with HPA access hyperactivity, decreased sleep duration, as well as reduced REM sleep and delta power, leading to poorer quality sleep, impaired memory, poorer mood regulation, which can, in turn, lead to more stress.

Stress Management Sleep Strategies

If your sleep problems are being compounded by the effects of stress, sleep may come easier with the implementation of healthy stress management techniques before bed. Coping with stress takes many forms, and can involve emotional engagement or emotional disengagement.

Notably, one study found that strategies that reduce emotional avoidance and enhance emotional awareness are helpful for reducing the impact of stress on sleep onset latency, while strategies that increase avoidance, such as alcohol use, can lead to longer sleep delays.

Healthy coping strategies that reduce emotional avoidance include meditation and simple breathing exercises, which can reduce stress and tension in the body, lower stress hormone levels, and help sleep come more easily.

Problem-solving can also be a way to reduce stress, but it can be stimulating and should be done earlier in the day rather than before bed.

It is important to leave enough time for stress management and also enough time for sleep itself. Educate yourself about additional stress management sleep strategies and read more about the benefits of a good night’s sleep to inspire you to figure out a plan to create space in your busy life to reduce your stress before bed.

A Word From Verywell

Not all sleep problems are due directly or entirely to stress. Certain hormonal changes that come with menopause or even natural aging can alter sleep patterns. Certain medications can also have an effect on sleep, as can caffeine, alcohol, and other things you consume. If you are feeling that you are managing your stress well and find that your sleep has not improved, you should consult your doctor to see if one of these other causes could be affecting you or if you might have a sleep disorder.

Source: Verywellmind


Excessive Social Media Use Comparable to Drug Addiction

Social Media and Addiction

How People Become Hooked on Social Media and What to Do About It

Researchers at Michigan State University have found that people who report using social media a lot tend to struggle with decision-making. As part of their study, participants answered questions about their social media use. The questions were tailored to see how dependent people were on social media, as well as how they felt when they couldn’t use it and how they would feel about never using it again.

After the survey, the participants completed a common psychological task known as the Iowa Gambling Task, which helps gauge value-based decision-making skills. During the task, the goal is for the participants to collect as much money as possible. The researchers found that those participants who spent more time on social media were likely to have less money at the end of the task. Meanwhile, those who spent less time on social media finished the task with more money.

Because this type of deficit in decision-making skills often goes hand-in-hand with drug addiction as well as a gambling addiction, the researchers likened the results of excessive social media use to aspects of an addiction.

In another study, researchers explored what it would “cost” for certain participants to deactivate their Facebook profiles for up to one year. Consequently, experimental auctions revealed that it would anywhere from $1,000 to more than $2,000 for participants to cancel their Facebook profiles for that length of time.

Still, some users refused to bid at all, which researchers believe signaled their dependence on Facebook and their unwillingness to even consider deactivating their accounts. These results show just how dependent, or addicted to, social media some people are that they would not even consider deactivating their accounts for a year, despite being paid.

Other Issues With Excessive Social Media Use

For some people, the thought of not being able to check their social media accounts causes them to break out in a cold sweat. They get nervous and anxious and are not sure how to handle the situation. When this occurs, therapists often refer to this as social media anxiety disorder, which may share similarities to social anxiety disorder.

This connection is not surprising given that anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder in the United States; and technology seems to be making things worse. In fact, appears that the more technology people acquire, the more stressed out they become.

For instance, researchers estimate that 20 percent of people with social media accounts cannot go more than three hours without checking them; and for people with social media anxiety disorder, just being away from their social media accounts for just a few minutes can cause severe anxiety.

Signs You (or Your Teen) Are Hooked

Aside from the obvious anxiety and nervousness that being away from social media can cause some people, there are some other telltale signs that they may have an addiction to social media. These include everything from isolating themselves from others, losing interest in activities they once found enjoyable, and getting agitated, angry, or anxious when they are unable to check social media. Following is a closer look at some of the signs that you (or your teen) may be hooked on social media:

Anxiety, agitation, or anger when you cannot check social media. Not being able to check social media is not a life-threatening situation. But, for some people, not being able to get online and check their status and their updates can feel like one. Even though they may feel embarrassed or confused by their reactions, they often feel like they cannot control their feelings or their situation.

Interrupt conversations to check social media. Sometimes people can be so obsessed with the online world that they have trouble staying in the moment or paying attention to what others are saying. Consequently, their faces are often buried in their phones; or, they may appear distracted and constantly check their phones.

Lie to others about how much time is spent online. Most people who struggle with social media addiction are embarrassed by how much time they spend online. So, they lie to their loved ones about how much they are scrolling social media. They know they should not be online so much, but they just cannot help it.

Withdraw from family and friends. When social media addiction progresses, it can become consuming of a person’s time and energy. As a result, a person with an addiction to social media will withdraw from family and friends and spend most of their time in the virtual world.

Lose interest in other activities. As social media takes up more and more time, it becomes the most important thing in a person’s life. Consequently, the addicted person will spend the bulk of their time on social media and very little time doing the things they once loved.

Neglect school or work in favor of social media. One hallmark of addiction, is the way that it consumes a person’s time, energy, and attention. For this reason, many people with social media addiction often neglect their schoolwork or their work assignments because they cannot tear themselves away from social media.

Experience negative impacts to your personal or professional life. One of the biggest indicators that you or your teen has a problem with social media is when it starts interfering with your life in a negative way. For instance, grades start dropping and deadlines are missed for school or work are definite indicators that there is a problem.

Feel stressed and that your life is lacking. It is important to remind yourself (and your teen) that what you see on social media is just another person’s highlight reel. They have normal, boring days filled with work and obligations just like everyone else. Remind yourself that if social media makes you think that your life is boring, it is not going to get any better sitting there obsessing about it. You have to get out and enjoy your life – experience it – not just document it.

Practical Ways to Monitor Social Media Use

Whether you want to monitor your social media use, your teens’ use, or both, there are a number of steps you can take to see not only how often you are using social media, but also to determine if you are using it in healthy and productive ways.

Manage Notifications

When notifications from social media ping on your phone all day, every day, it can be challenging not to toggle over to your social media accounts and see what is happening.

For this reason, it can be extremely useful, and preventative, to turn off the notifications on your social media accounts. This way, instead of social media beckoning you to check out what people are posting or saying, you are in control. As a result, you are free to check social media at times that are convenient for you rather than feeling you should check right away when your phone pings.

Meanwhile, you may want to turn on notifications for when your kids post to their social media accounts.

In other words, you can set up notifications on your account to notify you know anytime your teen posts something on their social media account. This way, you can see what they are posting, how often they are posting, and determine if they need some tips on digital etiquette or to take something down.

With notifications, hopefully you see a questionable post before too many other people do.

See Certain Posts First

On some social media accounts, like Facebook, you can set guidelines that allow you to see certain social media posts first. What’s more, you also can indicate who your “close friends” are so that you get notifications when they post. (You can still get notifications when they post that do not alert your phone immediately. Instead, these notifications are only listed in the notifications tab.)

When you set up these types of parameters on social media, you are making it work for you instead of allowing it to push you into behaving or interacting in a certain way. Additionally, these types of parameters make it much easier to just see what you want on social media rather than scrolling through every post in your feed. This way, it is much easier to limit the time you spend on social media.

Conduct a Social Media Audit

One of the best ways to get a picture of how you or your teen is using social media, is to conduct a social media audit. Take a look at the posts, photos, and comments. Then consider what these things say about you and your social media use.

For instance, are you posting every day, multiple times a day? Or do you go days or even weeks without posting? If you find that you are posting every day, multiple times per day, you may want to take a closer look at how much time you are spending on social media.

Your social media audit could be your first clue that things are starting to go off the tracks somewhat.

Track Your Time on Social Media

Whether you use your phone’s settings or get a free app like Quality Time, there are countless ways to manage your time and track how much time you are spending not only on your phone but also on social media, Netflix, and online gaming.

Once you know how you are spending your time, you will be able to set goals and limits for your social media use. Additionally, some apps allow you to add family members so that you can all disconnect or unplug together as well as keep one another accountable.

A Word From Verywell

Social media is a fun way to document and share your life, especially with friends or relatives that live far away. But just as with anything else in life, there is such a thing as too much. If you find that you (or your teen) are spending a lot time on social media, and it makes you anxious when you cannot check your posts or see what others are doing, then that is a red flag that something is wrong. It is time to take some steps to cut back and truly experience life around you rather than just document it.

Additionally, if you are showing signs of social media anxiety, or if you feel like social media is impacting your decision-making, you may want to schedule some time with a counselor or therapist. They can help you work through your anxiety and make sense of your feelings as well as provide you with ideas on how to make healthy changes in your life.

By Sherri Gordon

Source: Verywell mind


Just How Bad Is Vaping For Your Health?

Cory Stieg

© Getty The year is 2019, and it’s suddenly cool to carry around a device that looks like a USB flash drive and heats up a cocktail of nicotine and chemicals for you to inhale. Celebs vape, vape trick videos abound on TikTok, and you can order decorative skins to help customize your own personal JUUL.

As vaping culture grows, experts worry that people aren’t taking the health effects of e-cigarette use seriously. “There’s a great deal of misinformation about the whole vaping phenomenon,” says Enid Neptune, MD, associate professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and co-chair of the ATS Tobacco Action Committee. One of the main issues being that many people compare vaping to smoking conventional cigarettes, when really they are two separate practices that have uniquely different consequences, she adds. So, here Dr. Neptune answers a few questions you might have about how vaping affects your health:

© GettyWhat is vaping?

“Vaping” is the slang phrase that’s used to describe using an electronic cigarette or a battery-powered heated device to inhale an aerosolized solution, Dr. Neptune says. This liquid solution typically contains nicotine, flavoring, chemical additives, and propylene glycol. “So, when person says that vaping is like inhaling water vapor, that’s distinctly untrue,” she says.

© GettyHow does vaping affect your health?

E-cigarettes are considered newish devices, so researchers still don’t know the full scope of what the long-term health effects of vaping will be. That said, they’re definitely not harmless, and research has shown that the chemicals in e-cigarette fluid can be incredibly damaging to your health beyond just the nicotine, Dr. Neptune says.

Does vaping affect your lungs?

Studies suggest that there’s a much higher incidence of cough and worsening of asthma symptoms in people who vape versus people who don’t, Dr. Neptune says. Chemicals in vaping fluid also can cause acute lung injuries and contribute to lung and cardiovascular disease down the line, according to the American Lung Association.

© GettyCan you get cancer from vaping?

Again, it’s too soon to say, but many of the common vaping solutions contain measurable levels of well-known carcinogens, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, Dr. Neptune says. “Given that, there is at least a theoretical risk of developing malignancy with chronic and frequent exposure,” she says. What’s of “terrific concern” among researchers, though, is the fact that young people who start off vaping have a much greater chance of transitioning to conventional cigarettes, which we know cause cancer, she adds.

© GettyIs vaping worse than smoking?

Right off the bat, smoking is far more toxic than vaping, Dr. Neptune says. “Smoking generates thousands of chemicals that can have adverse effects on the lung and the body,” she says. But the answer to this question is far more nuanced than that, because we know more about smoking conventional cigarettes, Dr. Neptune says. “We know that it’s more toxic, but that’s not really the issue,” she says. What is an issue? “Vaping has developed a far more appealing habit and practice among children and young adults, so it represents its own public health menace,” she adds.

If you are struggling with substance abuse, please call theSAMHSA National Helplineat 1-800-662-4357 for free and confidential information.

Source : Microsoft news


Typical picnic basket contains ‘dangerous’ levels of salt, health campaigners warn

The Independent

Sarah Young

a plate of food on a table

© Provided by Independent Digital News & Media Limited A typical picnic basket of savoury snacks contains harmful amounts of salt and saturated fat, health campaigners state.

Action on Salt (AOS) – a group of specialists that campaign to raise awareness of the effects of salt on health – is warning that one in four picnic foods are “dangerously high” in salt and almost one in three have no colour-coded front-of-pack labelling, making it difficult for consumers to make healthy choices.

© Getty As a result, AOS is calling for immediate, compulsory nutritional labelling on all savoury snacks.

The warning follows the findings of a survey conducted by researchers at Queen Mary University of London, which analysed 555 savoury picnic finger foods available from retailers.

Among the worst offenders in the foods analysed by the group were Aldi’s specially selected hand-stuffed Halkidiki Olives, with 5g of salt per 100g – double the salt concentration of seawater – and Ginsters Cornish pasties, with 2.99g a portion, which is the equivalent to seven portions of salted peanuts.

Gallery: 7 Clear Signs You’re Eating Too Much Salt (Best Health)

a man standing in front of a window: Who knew that salt could even impact your brain function? According to a 2011 Canadian study on 1,200 more sedentary adults, those with high-sodium diets had a higher chance of cognitive decline than those with less salt in their diets. As you age it is important to keep track of how much salt you consume, and make changes if necessary.

Similarly, Aldi’s Eat & Go Sausages & Ketchup were found to contain 2.2g per portion, as much salt as four and a half bags of ready salted crisps, while Fry’s Spicy Three Bean Pasty contained 1.8g per portion, the same amount as a McDonald’s hamburger and fries.

The study also showed that the saltiest sausage roll was Fry’s Sausage Roll, a vegan brand with 1.8g salt per 100g.

Scotch eggs, which has an average salt content of 0.76g per 100g, and quiche, which has an average salt content of 0.54g per 100g, were the lowest salt categories.

© Getty The researchers warned that almost half of the products surveyed were also “worryingly high” in saturated fat.

Morrisons Cheese & Onion Slices (330g) were found to contain 17.7g of saturated fat per portion, almost meeting a woman’s recommended daily limit of 20g.

Similarly, Asda’s Extra Special Maple Cured Smoked Bacon Quiche Lorraine with Butter Enriched Shortcrust Pastry (410g) contained 11g of saturated fat per 100g or 14g per portion, which is almost as much as in five McDonald’s hamburgers.

Graham MacGregor, professor of cardiovascular medicine at Queen Mary University of London and chairman of AOS, said that the Department of Health and Social Care and Public Health England are responsible for Britons continuing to eat more salt than recommended.

“Reducing salt is one of the most cost-effective measures to protect health,” MacGregor said.

© Getty “The time has come for the Secretary of State for Health to resuscitate the UK’s salt reduction programme, helping us to, once again, be world leading rather than trailing behind the rest of the world. The public’s health has suffered long enough.”

According to the NHS, adults should eat no more than 6g of salt a day – the equivalent to one teaspoon.

It adds that eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure which, if left untreatd, can increase a person’s risk of developing a number of serious long-term health conditions, such as coronary heart disease and kidney disease.

AOS states that a reduction in salt intake could reduce blood pressure and prevent approximately 2.6m. stroke and heart attack deaths each year worldwide.

Gallery: 26 So-Called ‘Healthy’ Foods You Should Avoid (The Daily Meal)

“Eating yogurt is an awesome way to add good bacteria to your gut,” Schiff says. But she notes too many yogurts have sugar as a top ingredient, and suggests shoppers buy plain yogurt instead, adding in such mix-ins as fruit, nuts, low-sugar granola or chia seeds. She also recommends Greek yogurt, a higher-protein kind of yogurt. Non-dairy diners can try almond and soy yogurt.

Hearing clinic goes the extra mile to help patients suffering from dementia

by jonlinds

When Kari Weisgerber was studying to become a hearing aid practitioner, one of the first patients she worked with was an older woman living with Alzheimer’s disease.

When the woman grew frustrated, as those living with dementia sometimes do, she’d pull out her hearing aids and throw them away. Her Alzheimer’s could make it impossible to find them again.
“She was much less combative when she could hear, so her family would always replace the aids,” says Kari. “But hearing aids are expensive! We don’t want them getting lost.”

After thinking it over, Kari had an idea: a lightweight strap for the aids, barely noticeable to the patient.

It was simple, but it worked like a charm. The woman would get frustrated and throw her aids. She’d enjoy a break from the noise. Then a caretaker would discreetly tuck the aids back into her ears.

Seeing the impact this had on the patient and their family made a big impression on Kari, now the director and CEO of the Hear In Edmonton clinics.

“Being able to hear is not a cure for dementia,” she says. “But we certainly see improvement in the quality of life for our patients with dementia and their families when we help them hear.”
That is why Hear In Edmonton’s staff are all specially trained in testing the hearing of people suffering from dementia.

“It may take a little longer, or need to be done in pieces, but we almost always get some very useful results,” says Kari. “Whatever the patient can give us, we can make use of. For instance, with speech testing, instead of letting the machine do it, we do it with our own voice and just take our time.”
Kari and her team all do house calls, making it easier for patients who might struggle in new environments to enjoy the best hearing they can.

“We’re unique in that we’ll come to your home,” she says. “All of our equipment is portable, and we can accommodate any health problem or situation.”

In fact, depending on the case, a house call can result in better treatment for a patient, as their hearing aid can be calibrated in their particular environment.

“Hearing loss and dementia both can result in frustration, misunderstanding what people are saying, and not getting the full picture. Telling them apart can be pretty tricky.”

But Hear In Edmonton’s services don’t just improve the lives of those diagnosed with dementia. “People are often surprised when they learn about the similarity in symptoms of dementia and hearing loss,” says Kari. “It’s widely known in the industry, but not among people in general.

“Hearing loss and dementia both can result in frustration, misunderstanding what people are saying, and not getting the full picture. Telling them apart can be pretty tricky.”

If you think a loved one might have dementia, it’s worth making sure that hearing loss is not part of the problem. You might even find out that what was thought to be dementia can be remedied with hearing loss treatment.

Of course, hearing aid technology has come a long way since Kari’s student days. One of the most important innovations for patients with dementia is the development of GPS-linked hearing aids, which can help locate loved ones who may wander off and get lost. They can also make finding the aids themselves much easier.

Kari remembers one patient with dementia in particular who benefitted from this.

“He was very hard of hearing, and he wouldn’t go anywhere without his hearing aids,” she says. “His wife really appreciated that she could locate him on her phone if he managed to leave the home without anyone being aware. It was a really wonderful peace of mind.”

Other technological developments of note include wireless microphones that connect to hearing aids and can be clipped to a lapel and allow a patient to engage in conversation in noisy public places like cafes and restaurants. These mics also allow Kari’s patients to do things like go to church and still hear the pastor.

The tools used have changed since Kari began her career two decades ago, but the intent of her craft is the same: restoring personal connections.

“All too often it’s easier to step back from someone who has dementia, or hearing loss, or both, and not engage,” says Kari. “I think that’s a shame.

“Modern technology gives us so many tools to reconnect people with their loved ones. We want to maximize hearing to minimize challenges.”

This story was created by Content Works, Postmedia’s commercial content division, on behalf of Hear in Edmonton.jonlinds | June 24, 2019 at 12:20 pm


Wacyi Gelin Caafimaad Faa’iidayso





Faa’iidooyinka Caafimaad Ee Ay Xabaasuudi Leedahay Iyo Magacyada Xanuuno Ay Dawo ka Tahay.

Hargeysa (HWN)- “Xabaasuuddu geeri mooyee, cudur kasta oo kale waa ka dawo” waxaa hadal macnahaas ku dhow yihin, Nebigeennii Muxammed (SCW). Aadamuhu bilowgii noloshiisaba waxa uu xabaasuudda u aqoonsanaa dawo uu kula tacaalo xanuunno aad u tiro badan. Tan iyo markii ay bilowdeen cilmibaadhisaha kala duwan iyo tijaabooyinka dadku ku baadhayo waxyaabaha waxtarka u leh nolosha iyo caafimaadkana, mar keliya isma ay beddelin natiijada lagu ogaanayo faa’iidooyinka xad dhaafka ah ee ay xabaasuuddu leedahay.

Xabaasuudda waxaa ku jira faytamiinno tiro badan oo ay ka mid yihiin, A, E, F, B1, B3, B6’ Beta-carotene, Biotin, curiyeyaal yaryar oo tiro badan iyo maaddooyin lid ku ah mariidka / sunta cuntada ka
samaysanta ee jidhka ku dhalata. Waxyaabaha ugu muhiimsan ee ay xabaasuuddu ka samaysantahayna waxaa ka mid ah ‘Thiamin’ oo leh awood liddi ku ah kaarka, nabarowga, una shaqaysa sida xanuun baabi’iyaha, isla markaana ilaalisa caafimaadka beerka iyo keliyaha. Waxa kale oo ay u shaqaysaa sida dawada Isbiriinka (Aspirin), waxa aanay leedahay awood liddi ku ah kansarka.

Marka aynu si guud u eegno waxyaabaha laga faa’iido isticmaalka xabaasuudda waxaa ka mid ah, xoojinta habdhiska difaaca ee jidhka, la dagaalanka dhiig la’aanta iyo kor u qaadista heerka barootiinta loo yaqaanno Himoglobiin ee ku jira unugyada dhiigga cas oo ogasiinta gaadhsiiya nudaha jidhka iyo unugyada dhiigga cas, waxa aanay liddi ku tahay Bakteeriyada, Jeermiska, Fangiga iyo dulinka. Waxaa intaas dheer in ay ka hortagto in kelyaha uu dhagax ku samaysmo. Qormadan oo aynu ka soo xigannay shabakadda wararka ee talefishanka laga leeyahay dalka Ruushka ee Russia today, waxa aynu ku soo qaadanaynaa qaar ka mid ah xaaladaha caafimaad ee ay xabaasuuddu si gaar ah waxtarka la taaban karo ugu yeelato. Kuwaas oo kala ah:


Xabaasuuddu waxa ay dawo ka tahay, ama ugu yaraan ay dejisaa kaarka iyo xanuunka xasaasiyadda, gaar ahaan noocyada ay ka mid yihiin samboorka iyo xiiqdu. Tijaabo lagu sameeyey 150 qof oo ka cabanaya noocyo kala duwan oo xasaasiyad ah, ayaa isbeddel caafimaadqab ah lagu arkay markii muddo maalin kasta la siinayey 5 boqol oo miligraam oo saliid xabaasuud ah.

La dagaalanka dulinka

Tijaabooyin cilmiya oo carruur lagu sameeyey ayaa muujiyey in saliid xabaasuuddu ay wax weyn ka tarto ka takhalusidda gooryaanka. Sida oo kale midhaha xabaasuudda ayaa dila gooryaanka iyo xitaa ogxaantiisa.

Xanuunka Macaanka iyo waxtarka xabaasuudda

Xabaasuuddu waxa ay yaraysaa raadka xaaladda dadka macaanka qaba lagu arko ee afka qalaad lagu yidhaahdo, ‘Oxidative stress’ oo ah in jidhku uu lumiyo awoodda uu u lahaa isu dheellitir mariidka jidhka ku samaysmaya iyo lidka mariidka/sunta. Waxa kale oo ay xabaasuuddu ilaalisaa badqabka unugyada ganaca oo uu macaanku halis geliyo. Sida oo kale saliidda xabaasuuddu waxa ay hoos u dhigtaa heerka Guluugooskta ee midhicirada iyada oo korna u qaadda Insulin ta uu jidhku soo saarayo.

Habdhiska difaaca

Xabaasuuddu waxa ay raad togan ku yeelataa caafimaadka caloosha, waxa ay kaxaysaa xaaladda gaasteriga ku timaadda ee ah in asiidhka / biyo kululi ay dib uga soo noqoto caloosha oo ay hunguriga ku soo noqoto.

Source Geeska.



Somalidu waxay ku maahmaahdaa Wax walba run moode ayaa rag ugu liita.

Beryahan dambe waxaa suuqyada dacaayada ee baraha bulshada iyo warbaahinta dawlada furfurtay ee fedelka Somalida Konfureed ay shaqo ka dhigteen sheeko caruureedka odhanaysa Hawlada Jamhuuriyadii Somaliya ee 1 July 1960 Midowdey ayaa waxaa si rasmiya loogu wareejiyey Dawlada furfurantey ee federalka Konfurta Somaliya.

Hadaba arintaasi waa mid aan waxba ka jirin oo aan dhaafsaneyn hadal iyo qoraal afka laga yidhi oo aan qiimo u lahayn sida ay dad badani moodayaan.

Sideedaba Somaliyida furfurantey ee Konfurta Somaliya (dawlada federalka) waxay u jirtaa si magac uun ah balse maha mid nool oon nolol dawladnimo ku jirto,waayo waxaa hore loogu odhan jirey Dawlad Saaqiday ama Fashilantay  (failed state ). Ka dib laga soo bilaabo 2015 ilaa maanta waxaa loo yaqaan dawlad gurgurad barad ah oo aan weli cagaheeda isku taagin,oo la rabo in la baro nidaamka dawladnimada soo celinta nabada sida loo sameysto ciidamo,maamul dimoqraati ah,xisbiyo siyaasadeed,sida laysku maamulo iwm.

Somaliland waxaa loo aqoonsan yahay Dawlad qaan gaadha oo tusaale fiican iyo ku dayashoba u ah dimoqraadiyada dawlad wanaaga iyo nabad gelyada Caalamka, Balse aan Aqoonsi caalamiya helin,oo dunidu idhaha ka lalinayso sababo badan awgeed.

Dal walba hawadiisa isaga ayaa u tashada ama ha la aqoonsanaado ama yaan la aqoonsane caalamku mar walba wuxuu la macaamilaa cida ay dani ugu jirto marka ay dani timaato aqoonsiga iyo aqoosi la’aanto muhiim ma aha balse waxaa muhiima awaada uu dalkaasi u lee yahay  sharciga iyo kala dambeynta maamulkisa (law and order).

Markaa Somaliland waa ay dhaaftay maanta in la yidhaahdo hawadeeda Muqdisho ayaa laga maamulayaa balse waxaa aynu sugaynaa sheeko caruureedku halkey ku dambeyso.

Aniga waxay ila tahay inay la mid tahay sheeko dhacday markii Maxamed Siyaad Bare xamar uu ka cararey oo uu kismaanyo marayo ayaa mid ka mida kooxdii la qaxdey waxaa uu yidhi imika ayaa mareekanku ciidan iyo diyaarado dagaal keenayaa oo uu xamar ka saarayaa Gen. Caydiid iyo  USC da markaa ayaa inan yar oo la socotey tidhi Adeer ma awal 

baad wax iska hagraneyseen intii aan Xamar la inaga saarin miyuu Mareykanku ciidamada iyo diyaaradaha aad sheegeyso keeno…… Imika dawlada Furfurantey ee Farmaajo ma awal bay wax iska hagraneysey miyey hore ula wareegto hawada Somaliland mise Mareykanka ayaa u qabanaya…..?


What To Do when Someone is Choking


Cleaning sprays ‘as harmful to your lungs as smoking 20 cigarettes a day’

Using everyday cleaning sprays can be as harmful to a woman’s lungs as smoking 20 a day, research has shown.
And a separate study found household products may account for half of air pollution in cities.
The first study, in Norway, found lung capacity fell 4.3mls a year faster in women who cleaned at home and 7.1mls a year faster if they worked as cleaners. Asthma was also more prevalent.
Men who cleaned did not show a similar decline.
Prof Dr Cecile Svanes, of the University of Bergen, said: “Cleaning chemicals very likely cause rather substantial damage to your lungs.” She said sprays were usually unnecessary as a wet microfibre cloth was enough.

The second study, published at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Austin, Texas, found 50% of “volatile organic compounds” in the air in Los Angeles came from products such as paint, pesticides, bleach and perfumes.

Prof Jonathan Grigg, of the British Lung Foundation, said it confirmed that “air pollution can come from a range of sources”.

Dr Samantha Walker, of Asthma UK, said the Norwegian study was “deeply concerning”.

Sources:  MSN, Follow us on Facebook, and on Twitter


6 Benefits of Ablution (Wudhu) Which Have Been Scientifically Proven

Purity is the power of which the mysteries revealed to you. The purification of body strengthens your soul which ultimately bring you close to Allah. This is the reason why Islam emphasizes on purity, as it is the basic part of faith in Islam.

Every Muslim performs ablution (wudhu), before offering prayers. It is a simple, certain and obligatory pattern of washing one’s body parts with which they start their prayers. As Allah said in Holy Quran that,

“O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles”. (Al-Maidah)

After about 1400 years, this pattern of washing the body parts became an amazing thing for scientists all around the globe. Many Muslims are unaware that ablution is a medical protection they are applying to their body.

Here are the medical benefits of ablution, the scientists came to know after years of research.

  1. Ablution Refreshes Your Body


The Prophet (PBUH) recommended ablution before going to bed. Yoga experts also encourage washing of hands, arms, eyes, legs, mouth and genitals before sleep with cool water for a deep sleep.

  1. Reflex-Therapy

Source: Prayer in Islam

Ablution stimulates biological rhythms of the body and specifically Biological Active Sports (BASes) which are similar to the idea behind Chinese reflex-therapy. It is a treatment which includes hydro-massage of the BAS, their thermal and corporal stimulation.

  1. Washing Nose Prevents Microbe Diseases

Source: Stock Fotos

After a microscopic investigation, it is confirmed that the noses of those who do not perform ablution were exposed to a huge amount of harmful microbes which can cause many diseases.

  1. Washing Arms Activates Blood Circulation



It is also established that blood circulation at the limbs is weaker because they are far from the centre of the blood pumping heart. Therefore, their washing activates blood circulation at these remote areas of the body, making the person more vigorous.

  1. Washing Hands Prevents You from Pneumonia

Source: The Atlantic

A study carried out in Pakistan found that over 50% of pneumonia-related infections in children under the age of 5 could simply be prevented by the washing of hands with soap. Hand washing also reduces respiratory infections by removing infectious pathogens to be found on the hands.

  1. Rinsing Mouth Prevents Systematic Diseases

Source: Prayer in Islam

It is to be noted that Muslims wash their hands before rinsing their mouth, ensuring that they rinse their mouth with clean water. During the ablution, Muslims rinse their mouth in order to remove food particles and bacteria from the mouth. Most of them prefer Miswak – a natural toothbrush made from a twig or root of the tree which has its own antiseptic properties, for cleaning the mouth before ablution.

According to a recent study published in the Clinical Microbiology Reviews Journal by the name of ‘Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection’, have found a direct link between a lack of oral hygiene and systemic diseases. Systemic diseases include Cardiovascular Disease, Bacterial Pneumonia, Osteoporosis, Low Birth Weight and Diabetes-Related Complications.

In every Islamic ritual, there are numerous hidden scientific benefits on which scientists are working. Muslims are, by real means, blessed with Allah’s undeniable wisdom.

Thank you, my greatest Lord (Allah)

M J Farah BEng (hon), BA.

by Farwa



Sida qoraal lagu baahiyey sanadkii 2007 in The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice,cilmi baadhistaa waxaa lagu ogaadey in ay dadka intooda badani jecel yihiin iney u seexdaan dhinaca(the side-sleeping position) iyo in aanay  badneyn  in ay ka cawdaan dhibaatooyinka dabarka,luqunta waxayna helaan hurdo habeen wanaagsan,sida dadka kale ee u seexda qaabka kale ee ka duwan ay ka cawdaan qorxanuunka,garbo xanuunka  iwm.Sidaa awgeed waxaa muhiim ah in

Aynu u seexano dhinacyada ama dhabarka si aynu u helno hurdo caafimaad leh,waxaa jira in Nebi Maxamed nabad gelyo iyo naxariisi korkiisa Allah ha yeelee ,uu inoo sheegay in aynu u seexano dhinaca midig, arintanina waa cadeyn kale oo muujinaysa faa’iidada hurdada ee dhinaca midig inay tahay mid aad muhiim u ah,oo xataa sunaha nebigeenii maxamed naxariisi korkiisa ha ahaatee ay ka mid tahay.

Waxaa in badan culimada saynisku isweydiiyaan Waa maxay sababta aynu u seexanaa?

Su’aashaa jawaabteedu waa mid  wax badan la isweydiinayey oo baadhis badan lagu sameeyey balse lama oga sabaabta aynu u seexano,marka laga eego dhinaca cilmi baadhista sayniska ee ilaa hada la sameeyey. Taa badalkeeda waxaa la og yahay oo jirta in hurdadu muhiim u tahay caafimaadkeena iyada oo maskaxdeenu hesha isa safeyn ama iska saarid daalkii wakhtigii soojeedka,oo waxay isku sameysaa is nadiifin,si si firfircoon u hawl gasho wakhtiga soo jeedka markey soo toosto maskaxdu ma aha mid wada seexata balse qaybo ka mida ayaa gala halka qaybaha kalena shaqada sii wadaan.Inta badan waxaa jira  ugu yaraan Saddex aragtiyood oo la la xidhiidhiyo hurdada ku was oo kala ah:

1-      Restorative Theory of Sleep

2-      Adaptive Theory of Sleep

3-      Energy Conservation Theory

Guud ahaan aragtiyahasi iyo kuwo kale ba waxaa ay muujinayaan in hurdadu muhiim u tahay noolaha gaar ahaan dadka iyo xayawaanka.

Sidaa awgeed waa muhiim in aynu ilaalino fayaqabka jidhkeena iyo maskaxdeenaba oo aynu iska ilaalino soo jeedka badan ee habeenkii dadka caadeystey in ay qaadka cunaan waxaa ku yaraata hurdada sababtaasi ayaa ugu wacan in lay ka caafimaad liitaan dadka kale ee iyagu hela hurdo ku filan.

Mahadsanidiin dhamaantiin,Allah(swt) ayaa ay u sugnaatey mahad dhamaanteed
M J Farah. Political analyst and writer, BEng (Hon), BA, AVCE, Cert. C. Journalism



Waxaa inoogu filan tusaale muhiimada ay hurdadu u leedahay noolalaha ,gaar ahaan Adamaha hadalka Alle . Oo inoo cadeeyey in habeenkii iyo maalintii mid walba uu ugu tala galay in looga faa’iideysto si yaabo kala duwan,oo ah in maalintii la shaqeysto oo la raadsado risiqa Allah habeenkiina asturaad iyo nasasho.bal u fiirso saddexdan ayadood ee ka mid ah quraanka kariimka ah ee micnohoodu yahay sidan:-

Allah (swt)wuxuu yidhi: “Miyannaan Hurdada Raaxo Idiinka dhigin(9). Miyannaan Habeenka asturaal idiinka dhigin(10). Miyaannaan Maalinta wakhti shaqo idiinka dhigin(11)”(Quran, An-naba).

Waa aad nooga dhigtay Yaa Allah waana kugu mahadinaynaa nicmadaada.

Hadaba marka dhamateen tagno sariirta waxaa aynu u seexana dhabarka,dhinaca iyo beerka(caloosha) uurku jirtaba.Hurdadu waxay jidkeena u tahay muhiim waayo marka aynu seexano waxaa ay saameyn ku lee tahay shaqiyadeena caafimaadkeena iyo weliba caafimaadka maskaxdeena.Daraasad cusub oo dhawaan lagu daabacay The Journal of Neuroscience, ayaa lagu sheegay hurdada aynu u seexano dhinac halkii aynu uga seexan lahayn dabarkeena ama caloosheena waxay u ogolaan kartaa maskaxdu inay iska saarto waxyabaha qashinka ah,sidaa darteed waxay yeraysaa khatarta  Asaasaqa (Alzheimer’s) iyo cudurada kale ee dareen-wadayaasha (other neurological diseases).

Dadka badankoodu markey hurdaan ma qiimeyn karaan hurdada ay heleen balse waxaa aynu taas bedelkeeda madaxa,dhabarka,lugaha iyo garbaha ayaa aynu ka dareenaa dhibta iyo dhib la’aanta hurdadeena,waayo marka aad si aan wanaagsaneyn u seexano waxaanu soo toosnaa inaga oo ka cabaneyna qoorta,garbaha lugaha iyo meelaha kale ee jidkeena waana ta dad badani yidhaahdaan xaley waan barkimo ka dhacay oo qoorta ayaa I xanuunaya. Sida lagu ogaadey daraasado la sameeyey waxaa lagu sheegay in dhinaca ama dhabarka oo loo seexdaa ay aad ugu wanaagsan tahay caafimaadka maskaxda iyo jidhkaba.Sidoo kale waxaa baadhistaasi lagu ogaadey in qofka dhinaca ama dhabarka u seexdaa aanu habeenkii hurdo ka kiciidiisu aaney bedneyn,oo aanu wax carqalada la kulmin.Sida qoraal lagu baahiyey sanadkii 2007 in The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice,cilmi baadhistaa waxaa lagu ogaadey in ay dadka intooda badani jecel yihiin iney u seexdaan dhinaca(the side-sleeping position) iyo in aanay  badneyn  in ay ka cawdaan dhibaatooyinka dabarka,luqunta waxayna helaan hurdo habeen wanaagsan,sida dadka kale ee u seexda qaabka kale ee ka duwan ay ka cawdaan qorxanuunka,garbo xanuunka  iwm.Sidaa awgeed waxaa muhiim ah in…………..

La soco qaybaha dambeQ.2aad

Mahadsanidiin dhamaantiin,Allah(swt) ayaa ay u sugnaatey mahad dhamaanteed
M J Farah. Political analyst and writer, BEng (Hon), BA, AVCE, Cert. C. Journalism

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